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Measles-Mumps-Rubella

Measles

Measles disease picture

Measles is a highly contagious viral illness. More than 90 percent of susceptible persons will become infected after exposure. Measles is spread through respiratory droplets, especially when a person with measles coughs or sneezes. Measles can be spread from 4 days before to 4 days after the rash occurs. Symptoms of measles begin about 10 to 12 days after exposure.

Measles can be prevented if the person is given MMR vaccine within 72 hours of the exposure. However, once symptoms are present the only treatment is supportive care to relieve symptoms and treat complications.

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Mumps

Mumps disease picture

Mumps is a viral illness that is spread through the air by respiratory droplets or by direct contact with saliva droplets. Not everyone infected with mumps will have symptoms, but even those persons without symptoms can spread the virus. A person can transmit mumps from 3 days before to 4 days after the onset of symptoms. Symptoms of mumps begin about 14 to 18 days after exposure.

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention


Rubella

Rubella disease picture

Rubella is a viral illness. It is spread through respiratory secretions. Up to 50 percent of people infected with rubella will have no symptoms but can still spread the virus. Rubella virus can be spread from 7 days before to about 7 days after the rash appears. Symptoms of rubella begin about 2 weeks after exposure and may be very mild or absent.

If a pregnant woman becomes ill with rubella, the infection can be passed to the fetus (unborn baby). The infant may be born with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), which can cause birth defects in up to 85% of births or even fetal death.

Measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine is recommended for all children, with a first dose at 12-15 months, and a second dose at 4-6 years. Children can receive the second dose earlier as long as it is at least 28 days after the first dose. MMR vaccination is required for entry into most schools or daycare facilities. MMR vaccine is also recommended for adults at high risk for exposure and transmission (i.e., students attending college or other post-high school educational institutions, healthcare personnel and international travelers). MMRV vaccine, which also prevents varicella (chickenpox), is licensed for use in children ages 12 months through 12 years, although it is recommended that MMR and varicella vaccinations be given separately for the first dose of each.

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

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Increased rubella vaccine coverage globally resulted in a decrease in reported rubella cases from 670,894 cases in 2000, to 22,361 cases in 2016.

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Measles, Mumps, Rubella, and Varicella: Among service members and other beneficiaries of the Military Health System, 2010 – 2016

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Measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella (MMR/V) are highly communicable infectious diseases whose causative agents are spread through contact with contaminated surfaces or airborne droplets. MMR/V were common in the U.S. before the introduction of licensed vaccines: measles (1963), mumps (1967), rubella (1969), and varicella (1995). Since then, these vaccines have been important components of routine pediatric preventive care. This report highlights the recent trends in MMR/V in both military and civilian populations as well as the importance of primary and booster vaccinations.  During 2010 – 2016, there were: •	11 confirmed measles cases – one was in a service member. •	76 confirmed mumps cases – 28 were in service members. •	7 confirmed rubella cases – two were in service members. •	62 confirmed varicella cases among service members. The reporting of cases of varicella in non-military personnel was not mandated until 2017. Individuals at highest risk for MMR/V •	Infants •	Unvaccinated persons •	Inadequately vaccinated persons •	Individuals living in communities with low vaccination rates •	Persons living in crowded and unsanitary conditions •	Those with compromised immune systems Access the full report in MSMR Vol. 24 No. 10 October 2017 for more information at Health.mil/MSMR A picture of service members in communal area displays as well as an image of team work activities.

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