Back to Top Skip to main content

Typhoid

Typhoid

Typhoid fever is an acute, life-threatening febrile illness caused by the bacteria Salmonella typhi, which lives only in humans. It is transmitted through the ingestion of water or food contaminated with infected feces. It is uncommon in the United States, and about 75 percent of the 5,700 annual cases are acquired through international travel. About 21 million cases of typhoid fever occur globally each year, with more than 200,000 related deaths. 

Symptoms of typhoid fever begin about 1 to 3 weeks after exposure. Common symptoms include sudden onset of a sustained fever as high as 104°F, myalgia (muscle pain), severe headache, fatigue, weakness, nausea, abdominal pain, severe anorexia, and constipation. Without treatment, people may continue to have fever for weeks or months. The death rate from complications can be as high as 30 percent.

There are two typhoid vaccines available in the United States. An injectable vaccine is given in one dose with boosters every two years. An oral vaccine is given in four doses, one taken every other day over 7 days, with boosters indicated every five years. Depending on vaccine type, the full immunization series should be completed 1 to 2 weeks in advance of travel. The vaccine is less than 80 percent effective, therefore food and water precautions must be reinforced when traveling.

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

You also may be interested in...

Typhoid Fever and Typhoid Vaccines

Fact Sheet
8/16/2017

This information paper describes typhoid fever and the vaccines to prevent it

Recommended Content:

Typhoid

Typhoid ACIP Guidelines

Report
3/30/2015

Recommended Content:

Typhoid

Typhim Vi Package Insert

Publication
3/1/2014

Recommended Content:

Typhoid

Vivotif Package Insert

Publication
9/1/2013

Recommended Content:

Typhoid

BUMED YELLOW FEVER AND TYPHOID FEVER VACCINATION GUIDANCE

Policy

BUMED YELLOW FEVER (YF) AND TYPHOID FEVER (TF) VACCINATION GUIDANCE

BUMED CLARIFICATION ON TF AND YF VACCINATION FOR PERSONNEL ASSIGNED TO OPERATIONAL UNITS

Policy

BUMED ADDITIONAL CLARIFICATION ON TYPHOID (TF) AND YELLOW FEVER (YF) VACCINATION FOR PERSONNEL ASSIGNED TO OPERATIONAL UNITS UNCLASSIFIED

<< < 1 > >> 
Showing results 1 - 6 Page 1 of 1

DHA Address: 7700 Arlington Boulevard | Suite 5101 | Falls Church, VA | 22042-5101

Some documents are presented in Portable Document Format (PDF). A PDF reader is required for viewing: Download a PDF Reader or learn more about PDFs.