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Military Health System Studies Inventory Tool

Welcome to the Military Health System Studies Inventory Tool (MSIT). Military Health System (MHS) data are used by Department of Defense, Veterans Administration, and academic health professionals and scientists to implement health care studies. These studies reflect the MHS interest to rigorously assess and improve our beneficiaries’ access to the high quality health care services they need. Additionally, these studies are frequently used to develop or improve MHS policy and often adopt useful, relevant comparisons to the national health care experience.

The MSIT allows easy review of recent studies that are either conducted or sponsored by the MHS, or accomplished using datasets developed or maintained by the Defense Health Agency for administrative, operational, or research purposes. The studies within this website represent important contributions of the MHS to the national health care dialogue and reflect our capacity to tackle the challenging issues needed to support evidence-informed health policy. Thank you for your interest in them.

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The association of predeployment and deployment-related factors on dimensions of postdeployment wellness in U.S. military service members.

Study

Abstract

PURPOSE: To assess the effects of predeployment and deployment-related factors on dimensions of wellness following deployment. DESIGN: Prospective longitudinal study. The dependent variable was dimensions of wellness. Independent variables were measured in terms of modifiable, nonmodifiable, and military factors, such as sex, race/ethnicity, service branch, smoking status, and combat experience. SETTING: A large military cohort participating in the Millennium Cohort Study. SUBJECTS: Included 10,228 participants who deployed in support of the operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. MEASURES: Dimensions of wellness were measured by using standardized instruments assessing self-reported physical health, mental health, and stress. Covariates were measured by using self-reported and electronic data. ANALYSIS: Factors of postdeployment wellness were assessed by using ordinal logistic regression. RESULTS: Most participants (78.7%) were categorized as "moderately well" post deployment. Significant modifiable predeployment predictors of postdeployment wellness included normal/underweight body mass index (odds ratio [OR] = 1.72, p < .05). Military factors significantly associated with wellness included not experiencing combat (OR = .56, p < .05), member of Air Force (OR = 2.02, p < .05) or Navy/Coast Guard (OR = 1.47, p < .05), and combat specialist occupation (OR = 1.22, p < .05). CONCLUSION: Multiple modifiable factors associated with postdeployment wellness were identified, which may help inform medical and military leadership on potential strategies to ensure a well force. Those trained in combat roles were more likely to be well post deployment though this apparent benefit was not conferred onto those reporting combat experiences.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Navy
  • Sponsoring Office:
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Undetermined
  • Release Date/Publication: November 01, 2013
  • Citation: Bagnell ME, LeardMann CA, McMaster HS, Boyko EJ, et. al. The association of predeployment and deployment-related factors on dimensions of postdeployment wellness in U.S. military service members. Am J Health Promot. 2013 Nov-Dec;28(2):e56-66.

Syncope among U.S. Air Force basic military trainees, August 2012-July 2013.

Study

Abstract

Syncope is a common event with many possible etiologies, ranging from benign to severe. Syncopal episodes of any origin, however, may result in traumatic injury due to postural collapse. Based on the prevalence of internal and external stressors during training, basic military trainees may be at increased risk for syncope. Between 1 August 2012 and 31 July 2013, there were 112 unique individuals who experienced syncopal or pre-syncopal events among basic military trainees at Joint Base San Antonio-Lackland, Texas, the only basic training site in the U.S. Air Force. The overall rate was 19.6 cases per 1,000 person-years (18.4 and 36.1 per 1,000 person-years in males and females, respectively). Based upon the findings of electronic chart review of the 112 cases, a majority of events occurred either during or immediately after exercise (n=38) or during a blood draw, immunization, or laceration repair (n=22). The most common etiologies were judged to be neurocardiogenic (n=54) and orthostatic hypotension (n=40), and two cases were attributed to cardiovascular disease. These findings support current preventive measures, including anemia screening during medical in-processing, an emphasis on hydration throughout training, and a padded floor in the trainee vaccination bay.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Undetermined
  • Release Date/Publication: November 01, 2013
  • Citation: Webber BJ, Cropper TL, Federinko SP. Syncope among U.S. Air Force basic military trainees, August 2012-July 2013. MSMR. 2013 Nov;20(11):2-4.

Deployment-related injury and posttraumatic stress disorder in US military personnel.

Study

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The current military conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan have resulted in the most US casualties since the Vietnam War. Previous research on the association between deployment-related injury and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has yielded mixed results. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effect of battle injury (BI) relative to non-battle injury (NBI) on the manifestation of PTSD symptoms in military personnel and to assess the demographic, injury-specific, and pre-injury factors associated with PTSD following a BI. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 3403 personnel with deployment-related injury (1777 BI and 1626 NBI) were identified from the Expeditionary Medical Encounter Database. Records were electronically matched to Post-Deployment Health Assessment (PDHA) data completed 1-6 months post-injury. The PTSD screening outcome was identified using a four-item screening tool on the PDHA. RESULTS: Compared to those with NBI, personnel with BI had more severe injuries, reported higher levels of combat exposure, and had higher rates of positive PTSD screen. After adjusting for covariates, personnel with BI were twice as likely to screen positive for PTSD compared to those with NBI (odds ratio [OR], 2.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.60-2.75). In multivariable analysis among battle-injured personnel only, moderate and serious-severe injury (OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.12-2.00 and OR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.01-2.68, respectively), previous mental health diagnosis within 1 year of deployment (OR, 2.69; 95% CI, 1.50-4.81), and previous BI (OR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.22-3.16) predicted a positive PTSD screen. CONCLUSIONS: Military personnel with BI have increased odds of positive PTSD screen following combat deployment compared to those with NBI. Post-deployment health questionnaires may benefit from questions that specifically address whether service members experienced an injury during combat.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Navy
  • Sponsoring Office:
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Undetermined
  • Release Date/Publication: November 01, 2013
  • Citation: Macgregor AJ, Tang JJ, Dougherty AL, Galarneau MR. Deployment-related injury and posttraumatic stress disorder in US military personnel. Injury. 2013 Nov;44(11):1458-64.

Surveillance snapshot: Bacterial meningitis among beneficiaries of the military health system, 1998-2013.

Study

Abstract

From 1998 to 2013 (partial year), 3,782 beneficiaries of the Military Health System (MHS) were diagnosed as cases of bacterial meningitis. Cases were ascertained from diagnoses recorded in special electronic reports of meningococcal meningitis (a Reportable Medical Event in the MHS) or in records of inpatient hospital stays in which bacterial meningitis was documented in the primary or secondary diagnostic position. Among the three types of benefi ciary groups, the proportions of meningitis cases by bacterial type varied. In active and Reserve/Guard component service members, meningococcal meningitis was the most commonly documented specifi ed type of bacterial meningitis. Among all other benefi ciaries (e.g., spouses, children, retirees, etc.) streptococcal meningitis was the most commonly specifi ed type of bacterial meningitis. Meningococcal meningitis was diagnosed among 91 active component service members, 14 Reserve/Guard service members, and 251 other benefi ciaries (Figure 2). Th e overall rate in active component service members was 0.41 per 100,000 person-years. The incidence rate was relatively stable from 1998 to 2008, and then varied greatly from 2009 through 2013. In 2009 and 2011, there were no cases of meningococcal meningitis in active component service members. During the entire surveillance period, there were documented an additional 266 cases of meningococcal disease that were not recorded as meningitis. These included meningococcemia (n=150), carditis (n=13), and other specified and unspecifi ed meningococcal infections (n=103). These cases affected 38 active component members, 6 Reserve and Guard members, and 222 other benefi ciaries.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Release Date/Publication: November 01, 2013
  • Citation: AFHSC. Surveillance snapshot: Bacterial meningitis among beneficiaries of the military health system, 1998-2013. MSMR. 2013 Nov;20(11):15.

Obesity and the US military family.

Study

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: This review discusses the current knowledge and future directions regarding obesity within the US military family (i.e., active-duty servicemembers, as well as military spouses, children, retirees, and veterans). The increasing rates of overweight and obesity within the US military adversely impact military readiness, limit recruitment, and place a significant financial burden on the Department of Defense. DESIGN AND METHODS: The following topics are reviewed: 1) The prevalence of and the financial, physical, and psychological costs associated with overweight in military communities; 2) military weight regulations, and challenges faced by the military family related to overweight and disordered eating; 3) the continued need for rigorous program evaluations and new intervention development. RESULTS: Overweight and its associated sequelae impact the entire military family. Military families share many similarities with their civilian counterparts, but they face unique challenges (e.g., stress related to deployments and relocations). Although the military has weight management resources, there is an urgent need for rigorous program evaluation and the development of enhanced obesity prevention programs across the lifespan of the military family-several of which are proposed herein. CONCLUSIONS: Interdisciplinary and collaborative research efforts and team-based interventions will continue to inform understanding of obesity treatment and prevention within military and civilian populations.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Release Date/Publication: November 01, 2013
  • Citation: Tanofsky-Kraff M, Sbrocco T, Theim KR, Cohen LA, Mackey ER, Stice E, Henderson JL, McCreight SJ, Bryant EJ, Stephens MB. Obesity and the US military family. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2013 Nov;21(11):2205-20.

Military report more complementary and alternative medicine use than civilians

Study

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: The study objective was to estimate complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among active duty military and compare data with civilian use. DESIGN: A global survey on CAM use in the 12 previous months was conducted. Final participants (16,146) were stratified by gender, service, region, and pay grade. Analysis included prevalence of CAM use, demographic and lifestyle characteristics. RESULTS: Approximately 45% of respondents reported using at least one type of CAM therapy. Most commonly used therapies were as follows: prayer for one's own health (24.4%), massage therapy (14.1%), and relaxation techniques (10.8%). After exclusion of prayer for one's own health, adjusting to the 2000 U.S. census, overall CAM use in the military (44.5%) was higher than that in comparable civilian surveys (36.0% and 38.3%). CONCLUSIONS: Military personnel reported using three CAM stress-reduction therapies at 2.5-7 times the rate of civilians. Among the military, high utilization of CAM practices that reduce stress may serve as markers for practitioners assessing an individual's health and well-being

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Army
  • Release Date/Publication: June 01, 2013
  • Citation: Military report more complementary and alternative medicine use than civilians. Goertz C, Marriott BP, Finch MD, Bray RM, Williams TV, Hourani LL, Hadden LS, Colleran HL, Jonas WB.J Altern Complement Med. 2013 Jun;19(6):509-17

Is military deployment a risk factor for maternal depression?

Study

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Maternal depression is a common condition among new mothers that can be associated with poor maternal health and negative consequences on infant health. Little research has been conducted to examine maternal depression, especially among military mothers, where unique conditions often exist. Using data from a large military cohort, this study prospectively examined the relationship between deployment experience before and after childbirth and maternal depression among U.S. service women. METHODS: The study included 1,660 female Millennium Cohort participants who gave birth during active duty service and completed baseline and follow-up questionnaires between 2001 and 2008. Maternal depression was assessed at follow-up using Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders Patient Health Questionnaire criteria. RESULTS: Deployment before childbirth, regardless of combat experience, and deployment without combat experience after childbirth did not increase the risk of maternal depression. Women who deployed and reported combat experience after childbirth were at increased risk for maternal depression compared with nondeployed women who gave birth (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17-3.43). Among the subgroup of female combat deployers, however, women who gave birth did not have a significantly increased risk for depression compared with those who did not give birth. CONCLUSIONS: Military women who deployed with combatlike experiences after childbirth were at increased risk for postdeployment maternal depression. The risk, however, appeared primarily related to combat rather than childbirth-related experiences.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Navy
  • Sponsoring Office:
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Undetermined
  • Release Date/Publication: January 01, 2013
  • Citation: Nguyen S, Leardmann CA, Smith B, Conlin AM, Slymen DJ, Hooper TI, et. al. Is military deployment a risk factor for maternal depression? J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2013 Jan;22(1):9-18.

Low vitamin D status and suicide: a case-control study of active duty military service members.

Study

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Considering that epidemiological studies show that suicide rates in many countries are highest in the spring when vitamin D status is lowest, and that low vitamin D status can affect brain function, we sought to evaluate if a low level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] could be a predisposing factor for suicide. METHOD: We conducted a prospective, nested, case-control study using serum samples stored in the Department of Defense Serum Repository. Participants were previously deployed active duty US military personnel (2002-2008) who had a recent archived serum sample available for analysis. Vitamin D status was estimated by measuring 25(OH) D levels in serum samples drawn within 24 months of the suicide. Each verified suicide case (n = 495) was matched to a control (n = 495) by rank, age and sex. We calculated odds ratio of suicide associated with categorical levels (octiles) of 25(OH) D, adjusted by season of serum collection. FINDINGS: More than 30% of all subjects had 25(OH)D values below 20 ng/mL. Although mean serum 25(OH)D concentrations did not differ between suicide cases and controls, risk estimates indicated that subjects in the lowest octile of season-adjusted 25(OH)D (<15.5 ng/mL) had the highest risk of suicide, with subjects in the subsequent higher octiles showing approximately the same level of decreased risk (combined odds ratio compared to lowest octile = 0.49; 95% C.I.: 0.315-0.768). CONCLUSIONS: Low vitamin D status is common in active duty service members. The lowest 25(OH)D levels are associated with an increased risk for suicide. Future studies could determine if additional sunlight exposure and vitamin D supplementation might reduce suicide by increasing 25(OH) D levels.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Government, academic, or industry source other than Federal Government
  • Release Date/Publication: January 01, 2013
  • Citation: Umhau JC, George DT, Heaney RP, Lewis MD, Ursano RJ, Heilig M, Hibbeln JR, Schwandt ML. Low vitamin D status and suicide: a case-control study of active duty military service members. PLoS One. 2013;8(1):e51543.

Neuropsychiatric events in varenicline and nicotine replacement patch users in the Military Health System.

Study

Abstract

To determine the rate ratio of neuropsychiatric hospitalizations in new users of varenicline compared to new users of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) patch in the Military Health System (MHS). DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Varenicline (n = 19,933) and NRT patch (n = 15,867) users who initiated therapy from 1 August 2006 to 31 August 2007 within the MHS were included in this retrospective cohort study. After matching according to propensity scores, 10,814 users remained in each cohort. The study population included those with and without a history of neuropsychiatric disease. MEASUREMENTS: Patients were followed for neuropsychiatric hospitalizations defined by primary neuropsychiatric discharge diagnosis using ICD-9 codes from in-patient administrative claims. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated after propensity score matching on exposure for socio-demographic factors, health-care utilization, comorbidities, medication history and neuropsychiatric history. FINDINGS: There was no increase in the rate of neuropsychiatric hospitalizations in patients treated with varenicline compared to NRT patch when followed for 30 days (propensity-score matched HR = 1.14, 95% CI: 0.56-2.34). Results were similar after 60 days of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: There does not appear to be an increase in neuropsychiatric hospitalizations with varenicline compared with nicotine replacement therapy patch over 30 or 60 days after drug initiation

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Army
  • Sponsoring Office: DoD Pharmacoeconomic Center
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Army
  • Release Date/Publication: January 01, 2013
  • Citation: Meyer TE, Taylor LG, Xie S, Graham DJ, Mosholder AD, Williams JR, Moeny D, Ouellet-Hellstrom RP, Coster TS. Neuropsychiatric events in varenicline and nicotine replacement patch users in the Military Health System. Addiction. 2013 Jan;108(1):203-10.

Risk factors associated with suicide in current and former US military personnel.

Study

Abstract

IMPORTANCE: Beginning in 2005, the incidence of suicide deaths in the US military began to sharply increase. Unique stressors, such as combat deployments, have been assumed to underlie the increasing incidence. Previous military suicide studies, however, have relied on case series and cross-sectional investigations and have not linked data during service with postservice periods. OBJECTIVE: To prospectively identify and quantify risk factors associated with suicide in current and former US military personnel including demographic, military, mental health, behavioral, and deployment characteristics. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Prospective longitudinal study with accrual and assessment of participants in 2001, 2004, and 2007. Questionnaire data were linked with the National Death Index and the Department of Defense Medical Mortality Registry through December 31, 2008. Participants were current and former US military personnel from all service branches, including active and Reserve/National Guard, who were included in the Millennium Cohort Study (N = 151,560). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Death by suicide captured by the National Death Index and the Department of Defense Medical Mortality Registry. RESULTS: Through the end of 2008, findings were 83 suicides in 707,493 person-years of follow-up (11.73/100,000 person-years [95% CI, 9.21-14.26]). In Cox models adjusted for age and sex, factors significantly associated with increased risk of suicide included male sex, depression, manic-depressive disorder, heavy or binge drinking, and alcohol-related problems. None of the deployment-related factors (combat experience, cumulative days deployed, or number of deployments) were associated with increased suicide risk in any of the models. In multivariable Cox models, individuals with increased risk for suicide were men (hazard ratio [HR], 2.14; 95% CI, 1.17-3.92; P = .01; attributable risk [AR], 3.5 cases/10,000 persons), and those with depression (HR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.05-3.64; P = .03; AR, 6.9/10,000 persons), manic-depressive disorder (HR, 4.35; 95% CI, 1.56-12.09; P = .005; AR, 35.6/10,000 persons), or alcohol-related problems (HR, 2.56; 95% CI, 1.56-4.18; P <.001; AR, 7.7/10,000 persons). A nested, matched case-control analysis using 20:1 control participants per case confirmed these findings. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this sample of current and former military personnel observed July 1, 2001-December 31, 2008, suicide risk was independently associated with male sex and mental disorders but not with military-specific variables. These findings may inform approaches to mitigating suicide risk in this population.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: DoD agency, office, or organization other than the Army, Navy, Air Force, or Defense Health Agency
  • Sponsoring Office:
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Agency, office or organization under authority of the Sec Def (not affiliated to Army, Navy, or Air Force)
  • Release Date/Publication: August 01, 2013
  • Citation: LeardMann CA, Powell TM, Smith TC, Bell MR, Smith B, Boyko EJ, Hooper TI, Gackstetter GD, Ghamsary M, Hoge CW. Risk factors associated with suicide in current and former US military personnel. JAMA. 2013 Aug 7;310(5):496-506

Surveillance snapshot: states with the most pertussis diagnoses among service members and other beneficiaries of the Military Health System, January 2012-June 2014.

Study

Abstract

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, so far in 2014, reported cases of pertussis in the U.S. have increased 24% over the previous year; by June 16, a total of 9,964 cases of pertussis had been reported by 50 states and the District of Columbia. On June 13, the California Department of Public Health announced that the state was experiencing a pertussis (“whooping cough”) epidemic. As of June 10, a total of 3,458 cases had been reported in the state; this number of pertussis cases exceeds the number of cases reported in the entire year in 2013. Th e MSMR has previously reported on spatiotemporal clusters of pertussis in the military that were associated with outbreaks in neighboring non-military communities; this association was clearly demonstrated during a previous 2010 outbreak in California. Between January 2012 and June 2014, the greatest number of pertussis cases (both confi rmed and probable) diagnosed in military benefi ciaries occurred in California, Texas, Washington, Virginia, and Florida (Figure); 90 cases have been diagnosed in California since January 2014, which is more than was reported in all of 2012 (n=68) or 2013 (n=89).

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Release Date/Publication: June 01, 2014
  • Citation: Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center (AFHSC). Surveillance snapshot: states with the most pertussis diagnoses among service members and other beneficiaries of the Military Health System, January 2012-June 2014. MSMR. 2014 Jun;21(6):18.

REPORT TO CONGRESS, NATIONAL DEFENSE AUTHORIZATION ACT FOR FISCAL YEAR 2013 (HR-4310), SECTION 737, STUDY ON INCIDENCE OF BREAST CANCER AMONG MEMBERS OF ARMED FORCES SERVING ON ACTIVE DUTY

Study

Abstract

The Department of Defense (DoD), Defense Health Agency submits this report in accordance with the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013 (HR 4310), section 737, that calls on The Secretary of Defense to conduct a study on the incidence of breast cancer among members of the Armed Forces. The findings from this study indicate that breast cancer incidence among active service members is a rare event. The female breast cancer incidence rate among this population has not changed significantly across the study period, 2000 through 2010, and the age-adjusted incidence rate is significantly lower over that time period when compared with national incidence rates reported by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). Approximately 72% of all breast cancer patients are first diagnosed at stages 0, I or II, which suggests that the Department’s outreach efforts to promote awareness and use of screening services have been effective for detecting tumors early. Upon detection, the service member has access to robust treatment options that reflect evidenced-based clinical practices and cutting-edge technologies offered in nationally-accredited cancer programs within the Military Health System. Since TRICARE has a process to assimilate emerging cancers technologies, medications, and practice into the benefit, the need for changes to law or policy are not apparent for the DoD to sustain a high level of commitment to quality cancer care.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Congressionally Mandated: Yes
  • Funding Source: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Release Date/Publication: June 01, 2014
  • Citation: Williams TV, AFHSC, JPC, NMCPHC, WRNMMC, Brandeis University, Axiom Resource Management, Inc.

Military traumatic brain injury: a review.

Study

Abstract

Military mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) differs from civilian injury in important ways. Although mTBI sustained in both military and civilian settings are likely to be underreported, the combat theater presents additional obstacles to reporting and accessing care. The impact of blast forces on the nervous system may differ from nonblast mechanisms, mTBI although studies comparing the neurologic and cognitive sequelae in mTBI survivors have not provided such evidence. However, emotional distress appears to figure prominently in symptoms following military mTBI. This review evaluates the extant literature with an eye towards future research directions.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Undetermined
  • Release Date/Publication: June 01, 2014
  • Citation: Chapman JC, Diaz-Arrastia R. Military traumatic brain injury: a review. Alzheimers Dement. 2014 Jun;10(3 Suppl):S97-104.

Risk factors for colostomy in military colorectal trauma: a review of 867 patients.

Study

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Limited data exist examining the use of fecal diversion in combatants from modern armed conflicts. Characterization of factors leading to colostomy creation is an initial step toward optimizing and individualizing combat casualty care. METHODS: A retrospective review of the US Department of Defense Trauma Registry database was performed for all US and coalition troops with colorectal injuries sustained during combat operations in Iraq and Afghanistan over 8 years. Colostomy rate, anatomic injury location, mechanism of injury, demographic data, and initial physiologic parameters were examined. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. RESULTS: We identified 867 coalition military personnel with colorectal injuries. The overall colostomy rate was 37%. Rectal injuries had the highest diversion rate (56%), followed by left-sided (41%) and right-sided (20%) locations (P < .0001). Those with gunshot wounds (GSW) underwent diversion more often than blast injuries (43% vs 31% respectively, P < .0008). Injury Severity Score ≥16 (41% vs 30%; P = .0018) and damage control surgery (DCS; 48.2% vs 31.4%; P < .0001) were associated with higher diversion rates. On multivariate analysis, significant predictors for colostomy creation were injury location: Rectal versus left colon (odds ratio [OR], 2.2), rectal versus right colon (OR, 7.5), left versus right colon (OR, 3.4), GSW (OR, 2.0), ISS ≥ 16 (OR, 1.7), and DCS (OR, 1.6). CONCLUSION: In this exploratory study of 320 combat-related colostomies, distal colon and rectal injuries continue to be diverted at higher rates independent of other comorbidities. Additional outcomes-directed research is needed to determine whether such operative management is beneficial in all patients

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Army
  • Release Date/Publication: June 01, 2014
  • Citation: Watson JD, Aden JK, Engel JE, Rasmussen TE, Glasgow SC. Risk factors for colostomy in military colorectal trauma: a review of 867 patients. Surgery. 2014 Jun;155(6):1052-61.

Self-reported sexually transmitted infections and sexual risk behaviors in the U.S. Military: how sex influences risk.

Study

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are prevalent in the U.S. military. However, there are limited data on risk-factor differences between sexes. METHODS: We used data from the 2008 Department of Defense Survey of Health Related Behaviors among active duty military personnel to identify risk factors for self-reported STIs within the past 12 months and multiple sexual partners among sexually active unmarried service members. RESULTS: There were 10,250 active duty personnel, mostly white (59.3%) aged 21 to 25 years (42.6%). The prevalence of any reported STI in the past 12 months was 4.2% for men and 6.9% for women. One-fourth of men and 9.3% of women reported 5 or more sexual partners in the past 12 months. Binge drinking, illicit substance use, and unwanted sexual contact were associated with increased report of sexual partners among both sexes. Family/personal-life stress and psychological distress influenced number of partnerships more strongly for women than for men (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR]=1.58, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]=1.18-2.12 and AOR=1.41, 95% CI=1.14-1.76, respectively). After adjusting for potential confounders, we found that the report of multiple sexual partners was significantly associated with the report of an STI among men (AOR, 5.87 [95% CI, 3.70-9.31], for ≥5 partners; AOR, 2.35 [95% CI, 1.59-3.49], for 2-4 partners) and women (AOR, 4.78 [95% CI, 2.12-10.80], for ≥5 partners; AOR, 2.35 [95% CI, 1.30-4.25], for 2-4 partners). CONCLUSIONS: Factors associated with the report of increasing sexual partnerships and report of an STI differed by sex. Sex-specific intervention strategies may be most effective in mitigating the factors that influence risky sexual behaviors among military personnel.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Undetermined
  • Sponsoring Office:
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Undetermined
  • Release Date/Publication: June 01, 2014
  • Citation: Stahlman S, Javanbakht M, Cochran S, Hamilton AB, Shoptaw S, Gorbach PM. Self-reported sexually transmitted infections and sexual risk behaviors in the U.S. Military: how sex influences risk. Sex Transm Dis. 2014 Jun;41(6):359-64
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