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Military Health System Studies Inventory Tool

Welcome to the Military Health System Studies Inventory Tool (MSIT). Military Health System (MHS) data are used by Department of Defense, Veterans Administration, and academic health professionals and scientists to implement health care studies. These studies reflect the MHS interest to rigorously assess and improve our beneficiaries’ access to the high quality health care services they need. Additionally, these studies are frequently used to develop or improve MHS policy and often adopt useful, relevant comparisons to the national health care experience.

The MSIT allows easy review of recent studies that are either conducted or sponsored by the MHS, or accomplished using datasets developed or maintained by the Defense Health Agency for administrative, operational, or research purposes. The studies within this website represent important contributions of the MHS to the national health care dialogue and reflect our capacity to tackle the challenging issues needed to support evidence-informed health policy. Thank you for your interest in them.

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Blurred front lines: triage and initial management of blast injuries.

Study

Abstract

Recent armed conflicts and the expanded reach of international terror groups has resulted in an increased incidence of blast-related injuries in both military and civilian populations. Mass-casualty incidents may require both on-scene and in-hospital triage to maximize survival rates and conserve limited resources. Initial evaluation should focus on the identification and control of potentially life-threatening conditions, especially life-threatening hemorrhage. Early operative priorities for musculoskeletal injuries focus on the principles of damage-control orthopaedics, with early and aggressive debridement of soft-tissue wounds, vascular shunting or grafting to restore limb perfusion, and long-bone fracture stabilization via external fixation. Special considerations such as patient transport, infection control and prevention, and amputation management are also discussed. All orthopedic surgeons, regardless of practice setting, should be familiar with the basic principles of evaluation, resuscitation, and initial management of explosive blast injuries.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Walter Reed National Military Medical Center
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Release Date/Publication: September 01, 2015
  • Citation: Balazs GC, Blais MB, Bluman EM, Andersen RC, Potter BK. Blurred front lines: triage and initial management of blast injuries. Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med. 2015 Sep;8(3):304-11.

Comparison of overweight and obese military-dependent and civilian adolescent girls with loss-of-control eating.

Study

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Limited data suggest that the children of U.S. service members may be at increased risk for disordered-eating. To date, no study has directly compared adolescent military-dependents to their civilian peers along measures of eating pathology and associated correlates. We, therefore, compared overweight and obese adolescent female military-dependents to their civilian counterparts along measures of eating-related pathology and psychosocial functioning. METHOD: Adolescent females with a BMI between the 85th and 97th percentiles and who reported loss-of-control eating completed interview and questionnaire assessments of eating-related and general psychopathology. RESULTS: Twenty-three military-dependents and 105 civilians participated. Controlling for age, race, and BMI-z, military-dependents reported significantly more binge episodes per month (p < 0.01), as well as greater eating-concern, shape-concern, and weight-concern (p's < 0.01) than civilians. Military-dependents also reported more severe depression (p < 0.05). DISCUSSION: Adolescent female military-dependents may be particularly vulnerable to disordered-eating compared with civilian peers. This potential vulnerability should be considered when assessing military-dependents.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Undetermined
  • Release Date/Publication: September 01, 2015
  • Citation: Schvey NA, et al., Comparison of overweight and obese military-dependent and civilian adolescent girls with loss-of-control eating. Int J Eat Disord. 2015 Sep;48(6):790-4.

Longitudinal assessment of gender differences in the development of PTSD among US military personnel deployed in support of the operations in Iraq and Afghanistan.

Study

Abstract

Divergent findings from previous research examining gender differences in the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among US military members deployed to the operations in Iraq or Afghanistan (recent operations) prompted this study utilizing a matching approach to examine whether risk for new-onset PTSD and PTSD severity scores differed by gender. US military members from the Millennium Cohort Study deployed in support of the recent operations were followed for approximately 7 years from baseline through 2 follow-up periods between 2001 and 2008. Propensity score matching was used to match 1 male to each female using demographic, military, and behavioral factors including baseline sexual assault. Analyses were stratified by combat experience defined as reporting at least one of five exposures during follow-up. Outcome measures included a positive screen for PTSD and severity scores measured by the PTSD Patient Checklist-Civilian Version. Discrete-time survival analysis quantified the association between gender and incident PTSD. Among 4684 matched subjects (2342 women and men), 6.7% of women and 6.1% of men developed PTSD during follow-up. Results showed no significant gender differences for the likelihood of developing PTSD or for PTSD severity scores among women and men who reported combat experience and among those who did not. This study is the first of its kind to match a large population of male and female service members on important baseline characteristics including sexual assault. Findings suggest that while combat deployed personnel develop PTSD, women do not have a significantly different risk for developing PTSD than men after experiencing combat.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Undetermined
  • Release Date/Publication: September 01, 2015
  • Citation: Jacobson IG, et. al., Longitudinal assessment of gender differences in the development of PTSD among US military personnel deployed in support of the operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. J Psychiatr Res. 2015 Sep;68:30-6.

Multiple Past Concussions Are Associated with Ongoing Post-Concussive Symptoms but Not Cognitive Impairment in Active-Duty Army Soldiers.

Study

Abstract

The extent to which multiple past concussions are associated with lingering symptoms or mental health problems in military service members is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between lifetime concussion history, cognitive functioning, general health, and psychological health in a large sample of fit-for-duty U.S. Army soldiers preparing for deployment. Data on 458 active-duty soldiers were collected and analyzed. A computerized cognitive screening battery (CNS-Vital Signs(®)) was used to assess complex attention (CA), reaction time (RT), processing speed (PS), cognitive flexibility (CF), and memory. Health questionnaires included the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory (NSI), PTSD Checklist-Military Version (PCL-M), Zung Depression and Anxiety Scales (ZDS; ZAS), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and the Alcohol Use and Dependency Identification Test (AUDIT). Soldiers with a history of multiple concussions (i.e., three or more concussions) had significantly greater post-concussive symptom scores compared with those with zero (d=1.83, large effect), one (d=0.64, medium effect), and two (d=0.64, medium effect) prior concussions. Although the group with three or more concussions also reported more traumatic stress symptoms, the results revealed that traumatic stress was a mediator between concussions and post-concussive symptom severity. There were no significant differences on neurocognitive testing between the number of concussions. These results add to the accumulating evidence suggesting that most individuals recover from one or two prior concussions, but there is a greater risk for ongoing symptoms if one exceeds this number of injuries.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Walter Reed National Military Medical Center
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Undetermined
  • Release Date/Publication: September 01, 2015
  • Citation: Dretsch MN, et. al., Multiple Past Concussions Are Associated with Ongoing Post-Concussive Symptoms but Not Cognitive Impairment in Active-Duty Army Soldiers. J Neurotrauma. 2015 Sep 1;32(17):1301-6.

Anger and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Severity in a Trauma-Exposed Military Population: Differences by Trauma Context and Gender.

Study

Abstract

Studies have found a stronger association between anger and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity in military populations than in nonmilitary populations. Two hypotheses have been proposed to explain this difference: Military populations are more prone to anger than nonmilitary populations, and traumas experienced on deployment create more anger than nondeployment traumas. To examine these hypotheses, we evaluated the association between anger and PTSD severity among never-deployed military service members with nondeployment traumas (n = 226) and deployed service members with deployment traumas (n = 594) using linear regression. We further examined these associations stratified by gender. Bivariate associations between anger and PTSD severity were similar for nondeployment and deployment events; however, gender modified this association. For men, the association for deployment events was stronger than for nondeployment events (β = .18, r = .53 vs. β = .16, r = .37, respectively), whereas the reverse was true for women (deployment: β = .20, r = .42 vs. nondeployment: β = .25, r = .65). Among men, findings supported the hypothesis that deployment traumas produce stronger associations between PTSD and anger and are inconsistent with hypothesized population differences. In women, however, there was not a clear fit with either hypothesis.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Undetermined
  • Release Date/Publication: December 01, 2015
  • Citation: Worthen M, Rathod SD, Cohen G, Sampson L, Ursano R, Gifford R, et.al., Anger and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Severity in a Trauma-Exposed Military Population: Differences by Trauma Context and Gender. J Trauma Stress. 2015 Dec;28(6):539-46.

A prospective cohort study of treatment decision-making for prostate cancer following participation in a multidisciplinary clinic.

Study

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Patients diagnosed with prostate cancer (PCa) are presented with several treatment options of similar efficacy but varying side effects. Understanding how and why patients make their treatment decisions, as well as the effect of treatment choice on long-term outcomes, is critical to ensuring effective, patient-centered care. This study examined treatment decision-making in a racially diverse, equal-access, contemporary cohort of patients with PCa counseled on treatment options at a multidisciplinary clinic. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was initiated at the Walter Reed National Military Medical Center (formerly Walter Reed Army Medical Center) in 2006. Newly diagnosed patients with PCa were enrolled before attending a multidisciplinary clinic. Patients completed surveys preclinic and postclinic to assess treatment preferences, reasons for treatment choice, and decisional regret. RESULTS: As of January 2014, 925 patients with PCa enrolled in this study. Surgery (54%), external radiation (20%), and active surveillance (12%) were the most common primary treatments for patients with low- and intermediate-risk PCa, whereas patients with high-risk PCa chose surgery (34%) or external radiation with neoadjuvant hormones (57%). Treatment choice differed by age at diagnosis, race, comorbidity status, and calendar year in both univariable and multivariable analyses. Patients preferred to play an active role in the decision-making process and cited doctors at the clinic as the most helpful source of treatment-related information. Almost all patients reported satisfaction with their decision. CONCLUSIONS: This is one of the first prospective cohort studies to examine treatment decision-making in an equal-access, multidisciplinary clinic setting. Studies of this cohort would aid in understanding and improving the PCa decision-making process.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Walter Reed National Military Medical Center/Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Undetermined
  • Release Date/Publication: December 01, 2015
  • Citation: Hurwitz LM, Cullen J, Elsamanoudi S, Kim DJ, Hudak J, Colston M, et.al., A prospective cohort study of treatment decision-making for prostate cancer following participation in a multidisciplinary clinic. Urol Oncol. 2015 Dec 15.

A Prognostic Model to Predict Mortality among Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Patients in the U.S. Military Health System.

Study

Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Accurate prognosis assessment after non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) diagnosis is an essential step for making effective clinical decisions. This study is aimed to develop a prediction model with routinely available variables to assess prognosis in patients with NSCLC in the U.S. Military Health System. METHODS: We used the linked database from the Department of Defense's Central Cancer Registry and the Military Health System Data Repository. The data set was randomly and equally split into a training set to guide model development and a testing set to validate the model prediction. Stepwise Cox regression was used to identify predictors of survival. Model performance was assessed by calculating area under the receiver operating curves and construction of calibration plots. A simple risk scoring system was developed to aid quick risk score calculation and risk estimation for NSCLC clinical management. RESULTS: The study subjects were 5054 patients diagnosed with NSCLC between 1998 and 2007. Age, sex, tobacco use, tumor stage, histology, surgery, chemotherapy, peripheral vascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, and diabetes mellitus were identified as significant predictors of survival. Calibration showed high agreement between predicted and observed event rates. The area under the receiver operating curves reached 0.841, 0.849, 0.848, and 0.838 during 1, 2, 3, and 5 years, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first NSCLC prognosis model for quick risk assessment within the Military Health System. After external validation, the model can be translated into clinical use both as a web-based tool and through mobile applications easily accessible to physicians, patients, and researchers.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Walter Reed National Military Medical Center/Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Undetermined
  • Release Date/Publication: December 01, 2015
  • Citation: Lin J, Carter CA, McGlynn KA, Zahm SH, Nations JA, Anderson WF, Shriver CD, Zhu K. A Prognostic Model to Predict Mortality among Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Patients in the U.S. Military Health System. J Thorac Oncol. 2015 Dec;10(12):1694-702.

Unintended pregnancy among active-duty women in the United States military, 2011.

Study

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Unintended pregnancy among active-duty women in the United States military, 2011. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional data came from the 2011 Department of Defense Health Related Behaviors Survey of Active Duty Military Personnel; 9038 women provided data on unintended pregnancy. Unintended pregnancy rates were calculated for all women and by available background characteristics, including military branch, marital status (married versus unmarried), pay grade (enlisted versus officer) and deployment in the previous 12months. Multivariable logistic regression testing for associations between unintended pregnancy and subgroups was also performed. RESULTS: The unintended pregnancy rate was 72/1000 women. Married women (odds ratio (OR) 1.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11-1.54) and enlisted women (OR 2.71, 95% CI 1.99-3.69) had higher odds of reporting unintended pregnancy compared to their counterparts, as did women in the Navy (OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.19-1.91) and Marine Corps (OR 2.38, 95% CI 1.92-2.95) compared to women in the Air Force. Unintended pregnancy rates did not differ between women who were deployed in the previous 12months and nondeployed women. Additionally, 10% of women who were deployed for 11-12months in 2011 reported an unintended pregnancy in the previous year, suggesting that their pregnancies occurred during deployment. CONCLUSION: Unintended pregnancy is higher in the military, including during deployment, compared to the general U.S. population (52/1000 women). All branches need to address the issue in a comprehensive manner including evidence-based provision of contraception and education among servicemembers. IMPLICATIONS: Unintended pregnancy is high in the military, including during deployment; further efforts to improve evidence-based provision of contraception and education are needed.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Undetermined
  • Sponsoring Office:
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Undetermined
  • Release Date/Publication: December 01, 2015
  • Citation: Grindlay K, Grossman D. Unintended pregnancy among active-duty women in the United States military, 2011. Contraception. 2015 Dec;92(6):589-95.

Retrospective Analysis of Long-Term Outcomes After Combat Injury: A Hidden Cost of War.

Study

Abstract

BACKGROUND: During the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, 52 087 service members have been wounded in combat. The long-term sequelae of these injuries have not been carefully examined. We sought to determine the relation between markers of injury severity and the subsequent development of hypertension, coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, and chronic kidney disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: Retrospective cohort study of critically injured US military personnel wounded in Iraq or Afghanistan from February 1, 2002 to February 1, 2011. Patients were then followed until January 18, 2013. Chronic disease outcomes were assessed by International Classification of Diseases, 9th edition codes and causes of death were confirmed by autopsy. From 6011 admissions, records were excluded because of missing data or if they were for an individual's second admission. Patients with a disease diagnosis of interest before the injury date were also excluded, yielding a cohort of 3846 subjects for analysis. After adjustment for other factors, each 5-point increment in the injury severity score was associated with a 6%, 13%, 13%, and 15% increase in incidence rates of hypertension, coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, and chronic kidney disease, respectively. Acute kidney injury was associated with a 66% increase in rates of hypertension and nearly 5-fold increase in rates of chronic kidney disease. CONCLUSIONS: In Iraq and Afghanistan veterans, the severity of combat injury was associated with the subsequent development of hypertension, coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, and chronic kidney disease.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Undetermined
  • Release Date/Publication: December 01, 2015
  • Citation: Stewart IJ, Sosnov JA, Howard JT, Orman JA, Fang R, Morrow BD, Zonies DH, Bollinger M, Tuman C, Freedman BA, Chung KK. Retrospective Analysis of Long-Term Outcomes After Combat Injury: A Hidden Cost of War. Circulation. 2015 Dec 1;132(22):2126-33.

Risk factors for severe outcomes among members of the United States military hospitalized with pneumonia and influenza, 2000-2012.

Study

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The progression from hospitalization for a respiratory infection to requiring substantial supportive therapy is a key stage of the influenza severity pyramid. Respiratory infections are responsible for 300,000-400,000 medical encounters each year among US military personnel, some of which progress to severe acute respiratory infections. METHODS: We obtained data on 11,086 hospitalizations for pneumonia and influenza (P&I) among non-recruit US military service members during the period of 1 January 2000 through 31 December 2012. From these, we identified 512 P&I hospitalizations that progressed to severe episodes using standard case definitions. We evaluated the effect of demographic and occupational characteristics, co-morbid conditions, and history of influenza vaccination on the risk of a hospitalized P&I case becoming a severe case. We also evaluated the risk of a severe outcome and the length of time since influenza vaccination (within 180, 60, and 30 days). RESULTS: The median age of subjects at the time of the P&I episode was 32 years (range, 28-40) and subjects were predominantly male (89.5%). In a univariate analysis, demographic risk factors for a severe episode included service in the US Air Force (RR=1.6 relative to US Army, 95%CI 1.3-2.1), US Coast Guard (RR=2.1, 1.2-3.7) or US Navy (RR=1.4, 1.1-1.8). Being born in the US and recent influenza vaccination (within 180 days of episode) were protective against developing severe disease. Among co-morbid conditions, univariate risk factors for severe disease included chronic renal or liver disease (RR=4.98, 95%CI 4.1-6.1), diseases of the circulatory system (RR=3.1, 95%CI 2.6-3.7), diabetes mellitus (RR=2.3, 95%CI 1.5-3.6), obesity (RR=1.6, 95%CI 1.2-2.1), cancer (RR=1.6, 95%CI 1.3-2.0), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (RR=1.4, 95%CI 1.1-1.7). Although many of the risk factors found to be significant in univariate analysis were no longer significant under a multivariate analysis, receipt of any influenza vaccine within 180 days of episode remained protective (RR=0.81, 95%CI 0.67-0.99), while serving in the US Coast Guard (RR=1.9, 95%CI 1.1-3.4) or US Air Force (RR=1. 5, 95%CI 1.2-2.0), presence of renal or liver disease (RR=3.6, 95%CI 2.9-4.6), and diseases of the circulatory system (RR=2.2, 95%CI 1.8-2.8), remained significantly associated with a higher risk of developing severe disease. CONCLUSIONS: In a large cohort, after adjusting for many possible risk factors, influenza vaccination was protective against severe episodes among P&I hospitalizations. The service-specific (US Coast Guard or US Air Force) increased risk may represent some differences in data (e.g., coding or reporting practices) as opposed to genuine differences in physiological outcome. Our findings suggest that renal and liver disease as well as diseases of the circulatory system may contribute to influenza severity in this population independently of age and other potential comorbidities. These findings provide additional evidence for the prioritization of specific risk groups within the US military for influenza vaccination.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Undetermined
  • Release Date/Publication: December 01, 2015
  • Citation: Van Kerkhove MD, Cooper MJ, Cost AA, Sanchez JL, Riley S. Risk factors for severe outcomes among members of the United States military hospitalized with pneumonia and influenza, 2000-2012. Vaccine. 2015 Dec 8;33(49):6970-6.

Vaccine-associated reduction in symptom severity among patients with influenza A/H3N2 disease.

Study

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The moderate level of protection conferred by influenza vaccines is well-known, but the vaccine's ability to attenuate symptom severity among vaccinated individuals (i.e., vaccine failures) has not been established. METHODS: We enrolled otherwise healthy adults who presented with influenza-like illness (ILI) at five US military hospitals between 2009 and 2014. Influenza was diagnosed and subtyped by PCR. Individual and composite severity scores were compared between those who had vs. had not received the seasonal influenza vaccine >14 days prior to enrollment. RESULTS: A total of 155 cases of influenza (A/H1N1, n=69; A/H3N2, n=66; A/untyped, n=3; B, n=17) were identified, of whom 111 (72%; A/H1N1, n=44; A/H3N2, n=52; A/untyped, n=3; B, n=12) had been vaccinated. Women were significantly less likely to be vaccinated than men (49% vs. 89%; p<0.01). In multivariate analysis, vaccinated individuals were significantly less likely to report a fever >101°F (OR 0.24; 95% CI [0.10, 0.62]) and more likely to report myalgias (OR 3.31; 95% CI [1.22, 8.97]) than vaccinated individuals. Among patients with A/H3N2 infection, upper respiratory and total symptom severity scores were significantly lower for vaccinated patients during the first 2 days of illness, and differences in total symptom severity persisted over 7 days (p<0.05 for all comparisons). Differences across additional symptom categories (lower respiratory and systemic) were also observed throughout 7 days of illness in bivariate analyses. Differences in symptom severity were not observed between vaccinated and unvaccinated participants with A/H1N1 infection. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with A/H3N2 infection, receipt of seasonal influenza vaccine was associated with reduced symptom severity. Patient-centered discussion about the benefits of influenza vaccination should be expanded to include the possibility that the vaccine could attenuate symptoms.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences/Walter Reed National Military Medical Center
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Undetermined
  • Release Date/Publication: December 01, 2015
  • Citation: Deiss RG, Arnold JC, Chen WJ, Echols S, Fairchok MP, Schofield C, et.al., Vaccine-associated reduction in symptom severity among patients with influenza A/H3N2 disease. Vaccine. 2015 Dec 16;33(51):7160-7.

Postdischarge Cause-of-Death Analysis of Combat-Related Burn Patients.

Study

Abstract

Combat operations in Iraq and Afghanistan have resulted in up to 8.8% of combat-related casualties suffering burns. From World War I through Desert Storm, burns have been associated with approximately 4% of the combat-related deaths. Experiencing a blast injury and exposure to killing and death while deployed has been shown to increase suicide risk. Although several studies of military populations have investigated risk factors for death among burn patients during the acute phase, no studies have reported mortality rates, cause-of-death, or the prevalence of suicide after hospital discharge. This study examined the case fatality rate, causes of death, and the prevalence of suicide among 830 combat burn patients discharged from the sole burn center in the U.S. Department of Defense, between March 7, 2003 and March 6, 2013. Cause-of-death was determined through the Armed Forces Medical Examiner's Office and the Office of the Secretary of Defense's National Death Index. A total of 11 deaths occurred among the 830 burn survivors, for an overall case fatality rate of 1.3%. Of the 11 who died, five deaths were related to accidental poisoning by exposure to drugs; three were related to operations of war (two after returning to the war zone), and the remaining three died from other accidental causes (one explosion and two vehicle crashes). There was no indication of suicide or suspicion of suicide as a cause-of-death for the former patients included in this study, suggesting that combat burn injury did not appear to increase the risk of death by suicide in our study population. Further research is needed to understand the factors that contribute to the apparent resilience of combat burn survivors.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Undetermined
  • Release Date/Publication: December 01, 2015
  • Citation: Escolas SM, Archuleta DJ, Orman JA, Chung KK, Renz EM. Postdischarge Cause-of-Death Analysis of Combat-Related Burn Patients. J Burn Care Res. 2015 Dec 1.

Treatment of active duty military with PTSD in primary care: A follow-up report.

Study

Abstract

First-line trauma-focused therapies offered in specialty mental health clinics do not reach many veterans and active duty service members with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Primary care is an ideal environment to expand access to mental health care. Several promising clinical case series reports of brief PTSD therapies adapted for primary care have shown positive results, but the long-term effectiveness with military members is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the long-term outcome of an open trial of a brief cognitive-behavioral primary care-delivered protocol developed specifically for deployment-related PTSD in a sample of 24 active duty military (15 men, 9 women). Measures of PTSD symptom severity showed statistically and clinically significant reductions from baseline to posttreatment that were maintained at the 6-month and 1-year follow-up assessments. Similar reductions were maintained in depressive symptoms and ratings of global mental health functioning.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Undetermined
  • Release Date/Publication: December 01, 2015
  • Citation: Cigrang JA, Rauch SA, Mintz J, Brundige A, Avila LL, Bryan CJ, Goodie JL, Peterson AL; STRONG STAR Consortium. Treatment of active duty military with PTSD in primary care: A follow-up report. J Anxiety Disord. 2015 Dec;36:110-4.

Deployment, combat, and risk of multiple physical symptoms in the US military: A prospective cohort study.

Study

Abstract

PURPOSE: Multiple physical symptoms (MPS) have historically been observed after deployment to a combat zone and are often disabling in nature. This study examined longitudinal trends in MPS status and its relationship to deployment in U.S. military service members. METHODS: Using longitudinal data from panel 1 participants in the Millennium Cohort Study (n = 76,924), MPS status was assessed at three time points (2001-2008) using the 15-item Patient Health Questionnaire. Probability of reporting MPS was analyzed using mixed-effects multinomial logit regression, with time and deployment experience as main explanatory variables. RESULTS: After adjustment for demographic, military, and health characteristics, service members who deployed with combat were significantly more likely to report MPS at each time point compared with those not deployed (odds ratio [OR] and 95% confidence interval [CI] for wave 1 = 1.49 [1.47-1.52], wave 2 = 1.73 [1.69-1.78], wave 3 = 2.08 [2.03-2.12]), and those who deployed without combat (OR and CI for wave 1 = 2.66 [2.59-2.74], wave 2 = 1.81 [1.75-1.87]; wave 3 = 1.68 [1.63-1.74]). CONCLUSIONS: Longitudinal trends indicate that the probability of reporting MPS has increased consistently over time only for those deployed, regardless of combat experience.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Defense Centers of Excellence for Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Undetermined
  • Release Date/Publication: December 01, 2015
  • Citation: McCutchan PK, Liu X, LeardMann CA, Smith TC, Boyko EJ, Gore KL, Freed MC, Engel CC. Deployment, combat, and risk of multiple physical symptoms in the US military: A prospective cohort study. Ann Epidemiol. 2015 Dec 11.

Prescription Stimulants and PTSD Among U. S. Military Service Members.

Study

Abstract

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a prevalent condition among military service members and civilians who have experienced traumatic events. Stimulant use has been postulated to increase the risk of incident PTSD; however, research in this area is lacking. In this study, the association between receipt of prescription stimulants and PTSD was examined in a secondary analysis among active duty U.S. military members (n = 25,971), participating in the Millennium Cohort Study, who completed a baseline (2001-2003) and two follow-up surveys (between 2004-2008). Prescription stimulant data were obtained from the military Pharmacy Data Transaction Service. PTSD was assessed using the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version and incident PTSD was defined as meeting the criteria at follow-up among those who did not have a history of PTSD at baseline. Overall, 1,215 (4.7%) persons developed new-onset PTSD during follow-up. Receipt of prescription stimulants were significantly associated with incident PTSD, hazard ratio = 5.09, 95% confidence interval [3.05, 8.50], after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, military characteristics, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, baseline mental and physical health status, deployment experiences, and physical/sexual trauma. Findings suggested that prescription stimulants are associated with incident PTSD among military personnel; these data may inform the underlying pathogenesis of and preventive strategies for PTSD.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Undetermined
  • Release Date/Publication: December 01, 2015
  • Citation: Crum-Cianflone NF, Frasco MA, Armenta RF, Phillips CJ, Horton J, Ryan MA, Russell DW, LeardMann C. Prescription Stimulants and PTSD Among U. S. Military Service Members. J Trauma Stress. 2015 Dec;28(6):585-9.
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