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AFHSB's health surveillance program supports Defense Department global health engagement efforts

U.S. Air Force Senior Airman Joshua Douglass, left, an aerospace medical technician, watches as Liberian health care workers properly put on their personal protective equipment as part response by the Defense Department operation to provide logistics, training and engineering support during the Ebola virus outbreak. (U.S. Army photo by Staff Sgt. Terrance D. Rhodes) U.S. Air Force Senior Airman Joshua Douglass, left, an aerospace medical technician, watches as Liberian health care workers properly put on their personal protective equipment as part response by the Defense Department operation to provide logistics, training and engineering support during the Ebola virus outbreak. (U.S. Army photo by Staff Sgt. Terrance D. Rhodes)

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Both the U.S. Armed Forces’ operational posture and the emergence and spread of infectious diseases relevant to military operations have evolved in recent decades. Worldwide, people are more mobile and interconnected than ever before. At the same time, land use in the developing world is changing in such a way that long-dormant pathogens have the opportunity to re-emerge and become health problems for a significant proportion of the population again. These conditions threaten not only the health of populations, but also the security and stability of nations around the world.

The Defense Department has long recognized the link between global health and security, and its global health engagement efforts address the intersection of these concerns. Defense Department health agencies are primarily focused on protecting the health of the force and medical readiness, but their global health engagement efforts also address other security priorities for the U.S. government such as helping partner nations build health capacity, combatting global health threats (e.g., emerging infectious diseases and antibiotic-resistant bacteria), and supporting U.S. government humanitarian assistance and disaster relief initiatives.

The Global Emerging Infections Surveillance (GEIS) section of the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Branch (AFHSB) supports global health engagement by leveraging a network of Defense Department laboratory partners that are positioned in critical locations globally and work with partner nations to combat infectious disease threats. Defense Department laboratories around the world execute coordinated, integrated surveillance efforts to detect and respond to febrile and vector-borne infections, respiratory infections, antimicrobial-resistant and sexually transmitted infections, and enteric infections regardless of the source. These efforts are conducted in more than 70 countries and serve to protect the health of a highly mobile force by informing risk assessments and countermeasure development, providing support to outbreak response efforts when they arise, and supporting operational access and freedom of movement in high-threat areas.

In support of the Defense Health Agency’s combat support efforts, the GEIS network’s ultimate goal is early, accurate detection of emerging infectious disease and rapid communication regarding those that potentially threaten the health of U.S. forces so that preventive measures can be taken to enable operational readiness and mitigate the risk of mission failure. Surveillance efforts are conducted in partnership with partner nation ministries of health and defense, thereby improving their health capacity by enabling rapid identification and response to infectious disease threats to their population and strengthening relationships with key U.S. partners. In this way, the GEIS program supports the U.S. geographic combatant commands (GCCs) in their areas of responsibility, advancing their campaign plans, lines of efforts, and end states. Additionally, by providing direct technical support to GCC-led international scientific coalitions and strategic engagement efforts, GEIS enhances Defense Department global health engagements and advances information sharing with partner nations. These activities ultimately better inform force health protection decision making at the GCCs and enable global health security for partner nations and U.S. government assets abroad.

Throughout December, in celebration of the Global Health Engagement Month, AFHSB will showcase some of the surveillance efforts conducted by GEIS’s laboratory partners around the world. These stories are available on DHA’s Global Health Engagement Spotlight page.

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Although Germany is rabies-free for terrestrial land mammals, rabies exposure remains a concern for U.S. military personnel assigned there because of personal and military travel and deployments to rabies endemic countries. Deployments have become much more variable both in location and duration. Deployments have increasingly focused on enhancing ...

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Cold Weather Injuries

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This update summarizes the frequencies, incidence rates, and correlates of risk of cold injuries among members of both active and reserve components of the U.S. Armed Forces during the past 5 years.

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Malaria

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This report describes a cluster of 11 soldiers with vivax malaria among U.S. military personnel who trained at Dagmar North training area, near the demilitarized zone (DMZ), in the Republic of Korea (ROK) in 2015.

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DoD Flu VE

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Each season, several entities within the(DoD) perform surveillance for influenza among beneficiaries and utilize these data to perform VE analyses to estimate how well the seasonal vaccine protects against medically-attended influenza.

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Psychiatric Medical Evaluations

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10/26/2018
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This study evaluated incidence of pre-deployment family problem diagnoses and psychiatric medical evacuations among a population of active component service members without a history of previous mental health diagnoses, who deployed to the U.S. Central Command Area of Responsibility for the first time between 1 January 2002 and 31 December 2014.

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Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

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The purpose of this study was to update previous MSMR analyses of the incidence of acute Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) among U.S. active component women using a 21-year surveillance period from 1996 through 2016. A secondary objective was to report on the proportion of service women with previously diagnosed PID who were subsequently diagnosed ...

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ESSENCE Fact Sheet 2018

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This fact sheet describes the Electronic Surveillance System for the Early Notification of Community-Based Epidemics, or ESSENCE. ESSENCE is a global and Military Health System (MHS) monitoring capability for early detection of imminent health threats impacting force readiness for active duty service members.

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Navy entomologists team up to build disease detection capacity in Honduras

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Navy LCDR Kimberly Edgel (right) and Carmen Lucas examine a positive malaria blood smear at U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit, or NAMRU, 6 in Callao, Peru. (U.S. Navy photo)

Leishmaniasis, malaria, dengue and Chagas disease are known to be present in Honduras

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Bringing Comfort 2018

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The USNS Comfort is a state-of-the-art hospital ship, and it’s scheduled to deploy to Central and South America for Continuing Promise 2018.

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Sailors, Afghan medical professionals team up to improve medical care

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Navy Lt. Cdr. Travis J. Fitzpatrick, senior nurse for Kandahar Airfield NATO Role III Multinational Medical Unit, demonstrates a technique on how to clear the airway of a patient to Afghan medical staff members during a medical advisory visit at Kandahar Regional Military Hospital, Camp Hero in Kandahar, Afghanistan. Staff members from the Role III conduct routine visits to KRMH to train and advise Afghan medical staff. (U.S. Army photo by Staff Sgt. Neysa Canfield)

The Kandahar Regional Military Hospital is run by Afghan military and civilian medical professionals

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USNS Comfort to deploy to Central and South America

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The U.S. Navy hospital ship USNS Comfort is scheduled to depart Naval Station Norfolk, Virginia, en route to South America and Central America where it will conduct an 11-week medical assistance mission working closely with host-nation health and government partners in Ecuador, Peru, Colombia, and Honduras. This mission marks the sixth time the hospital ship will provide medical assistance in the region and reflects the United States’ enduring promise of friendship, partnership, and solidarity with the Americas. (U.S. Navy file photo)

The ship’s crew will include more than 200 U.S. and partner nation military doctors, nurses and technicians

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Gynecologic Disorders

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Gynecologic disorders are conditions that affect the female reproductive organs, including the uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes, vagina, and vulva. As part of Women’s Health Month, this report describes the incidence and burden of four commonly occur-ring gynecologic disorders (menorrhagia, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), uterine fibroids, and endometriosis) among active component service women from 2012 through 2016. This report also documents the number and percentage of women with co-occurring incident diagnoses during the surveillance period.

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CVD

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As of part of WOMEN’S HEALTH MONTH, we focus on the findings related to female service members. If the risk factors are recognized, these service members can take steps to modify their lifestyles or obtain appropriate medical intervention, and reduce the likelihood of significant CVD while serving in the Armed Forces, and also after leaving service.

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HPV

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Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the U.S.; HPV is the second most frequently diagnosed STI in U.S. military service members. Currently, HPV vaccine is not mandatory for U.S. military service members, but the Defense Health Agency and each individual service have policies encouraging and ...

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HPV

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Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the U.S., and is the second most frequently diagnosed STI in U.S. military service members. Currently, HPV is not a mandatory vaccine for U.S. military service. However, it is encouraged and offered to service members.

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