Back to Top Skip to main content

Medical Evacuations out of the U.S. Central Command, Active and Reserve Components, U.S. Armed Forces, 2019

Airmen from the 19th Medical Group litter-carry a simulated patient onto a C-130J during an aeromedical evacuation training mission at Little Rock Air Force Base in 2019. (U.S. Air Force photo) Airmen from the 19th Medical Group litter-carry a simulated patient onto a C-130J during an aeromedical evacuation training mission at Little Rock Air Force Base in 2019. (U.S. Air Force photo)

Recommended Content:

Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

WHAT ARE THE NEW FINDINGS?

The numbers of medical evacuations of service members in 2019 were roughly similar to the numbers for the previous 4 years. The proportions of evacuations that were due to battle injuries (5%) and to disease/non-battle injuries (95%) remained steady during this period. Evacuations for mental health disorders were the most common among the ICD-10 major diagnostic categories. Most service members who were evacuated were soon returned to duty.

WHAT IS THE IMPACT ON READINESS AND FORCE HEALTH PROTECTION?

Only 1,142 service members were evacuated during 2019, but the process of medical evacuation of service members to Europe and CONUS is logistically demanding. The effort expended to evacuate service members to sources of definitive, modern health care is a reassuring investment in the health, welfare, and importance of the men and women serving overseas.

ABSTRACT

In 2019, there were 1,142 medical evacuations of service members from the U.S. Central Command area of responsibility that were followed by at least 1 medical encounter in a fixed medical facility outside the operational theater. There were more medical evacuations for mental health disorders than for any other single category of illnesses or injuries. The number of medical evacuations attributable to battle injuries increased steadily from 2015 through 2017 then decreased in 2018 and remained relatively stable through 2019, for an overall increase of 65.7%.

The number of medical evacuations attributable to non-battle injuries and illnesses remained relatively stable through 2017, rose slightly in 2018, and decreased in 2019. Compared to their respective counterparts, non-Hispanic white service members, those aged 20–24 years, Army members, junior and senior enlisted personnel, and those in repair/engineering occupations accounted for the largest proportions of medical evacuations. Most service members who were evacuated were returned to normal duty status following their post-evacuation hospitalizations or outpatient encounters.

BACKGROUND

Although there have been substantial reductions in combat operations taking place in the U.S. Central Command (CENTCOM) area of responsibility (AOR) in Southwest Asia,1 the number of service members deployed to the CENTCOM AOR is still significant. Recent reports and budget documents indicate that there may be as many as 15,000 service members in Afghanistan for Operation Freedom’s Sentinel and another 7,200 in Iraq and Syria for Operation Inherent Resolve.2–5 In theaters of operations such as Afghanistan, most medical care is provided by deployed military medical personnel; however, some injuries and illnesses require medical management outside the operational theater. In these cases, the affected individuals are usually transported by air to a fixed military medical facility in Europe or the U.S. where the service members receive the specialized, technically advanced, and/or prolonged diagnostic, therapeutic, and rehabilitative care required.

Medical air transports, or medical evacuations, are costly and generally indicative of serious medical conditions. Some serious conditions are directly related to participation in or support of combat operations (e.g., battle wounds); however, many others are unrelated to combat and may be preventable. This report summarizes the natures, numbers, and trends of conditions for which male and female military members were medically evacuated from CENTCOM AOR operations during 2019 and compares them to the previous 4 years.

METHODS

The surveillance period was 1 January 2015 through 31 December 2019. The surveillance population included all members of the active and reserve components of the U.S. Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps who were deployed to the CENTCOM AOR during the period. The outcome of interest in this analysis was medical evacuations during the surveillance period from the CENTCOM AOR (e.g., Afghanistan or Iraq) to a medical treatment facility outside the CENTCOM AOR. Records of all medical evacuations conducted by the U.S. Transportation Command (TRANSCOM) maintained in the TRANSCOM Regulating and Command & Control Evacuation System (TRAC2ES) were utilized. Evacuations were included in the analyses if the affected service member had at least 1 inpatient or outpatient medical encounter in a permanent military medical facility in the U.S. or Europe during a time interval extending from 5 days before to 10 days after the reported evacuation date.

Medical evacuations included in the analyses were classified by the causes and natures of the precipitating medical conditions (based on information reported in relevant evacuation and medical encounter records). First, all medical conditions that resulted in evacuations were classified as either “battle injuries” or “non-battle injuries and illnesses” (based on entries in an indicator field of the TRAC2ES evacuation record). Evacuations due to non-battle injuries and illnesses were subclassified into 17 illness/injury categories based on International Classification of Diseases, 9th and 10th Revisions (ICD-9 and ICD-10, respectively) diagnostic codes reported on the records of medical encounters after evacuation. For the purposes of this report, all records of hospitalizations and ambulatory visits from 5 days before to 10 days after the reported date of each medical evacuation were identified. In most cases, the primary (first-listed) diagnosis for either a hospitalization (if any occurred) or the earliest ambulatory visit after evacuation was considered indicative of the condition responsible for the evacuation. However, if the first-listed diagnostic code specified the external cause (rather than the nature) of an injury (ICD-9 E-code; ICD-10 V-, W-, X-, or Y-code) or an encounter for something other than a current illness or injury (e.g., observation, medical examination, or vaccination [ICD-9 V-codes; ICD-10 Z-codes, other than those related to pregnancy]), then secondary diagnoses that specified illnesses and injuries (ICD-9: 001–999; ICD-10: A00–T88) were considered the likely reasons for the subject evacuations. If there was no secondary diagnosis or if the secondary diagnosis also was an external cause code, the first-listed diagnostic code of a subsequent encounter was used.

The disposition after each medical evacuation was determined by using the disposition code associated with the medical encounter that was used for documenting the category of the medical evacuation. Inpatient disposition categories were returned to duty (code 01), transferred/discharged to other facility (codes 02–04, 09, 21–28, 43, or 61–66), died (codes 20, 30, 40–42, 50, or 51), separated from service (codes 10–15), and other/unknown. Outpatient disposition categories were released without limitation (code 1), released with work/duty limitation (code 2), immediate referral (code 4), sick at home/quarters (codes 3 or S), admitted/transferred to civilian hospital (codes 7, 9, A–D, or U), died (codes 8 or G), discharged home (code F), and other/unknown.

RESULTS

In 2019, a total of 1,142 medical evacuations of service members from the CENTCOM AOR were followed by at least 1 medical encounter in a fixed medical facility outside the operational theater (Table 1). Overall, there were more medical evacuations for mental health disorders (n=309; 27.1%) than for any other single category of illnesses or injuries. In addition, the numbers of evacuations for non-battle injuries and poisonings (n=275; 24.1%); signs, symptoms, and ill-defined conditions (n=111; 9.7%); disorders of the digestive system (n=106; 9.3%); and musculoskeletal system/connective tissue disorders (n=89; 7.8%) were all higher than the number of evacuations for battle injuries (n=58; 5.1%). The top 3 categories—mental health disorders (most frequently adjustment and depressive disorders); non-battle injuries (primarily fractures of extremities, strains, and sprains); and signs, symptoms, and ill-defined conditions (primarily pain and swelling)—accounted for more than half (60.9%) of all evacuations (Table 1).

During 2015–2019, the annual number of medical evacuations attributable to battle injuries increased steadily from 2015 (n=35) through 2017 (n=71), decreased in 2018 (n=56), and remained relatively stable through 2019 (n=58) (Figure). Over the 5-year period, the annual number of battle injury-related evacuations increased 65.7% from the nadir in 2015. The annual number of medical evacuations attributable to non-battle injuries and diseases remained relatively stable at low levels in 2015 (n=1,050), 2016 (n=1,010), and 2017 (n=1,024), increased in 2018 (n=1,209), and decreased in 2019 (n=1,084). In general, the annual numbers of medical evacuations over the course of the 5-year period varied in relation to the numbers of deployed service members,with the highest yearly counts of medical evacuations occurring in 2017 and 2018. The monthly numbers of medical evacuations decreased or remained stable in 2019 (Figure).

Demographic and military characteristics

The number of medical evacuations in 2019 was higher among males (n=962) than females (n=180) (Tables 1, 2). The most frequent causes of medical evacuations among male service members were non-battle injury and poisoning (n=250; 26.0%); mental health disorders (n=236; 24.5%); signs, symptoms, and ill-defined conditions (n=93; 9.7%); and digestive system disorders (n=92; 9.6%) (Table 1). Among female service members, the most frequent causes of medical evacuations were mental health disorders (n=73; 40.6%); non-battle injury and poisoning (n=25; 13.9%); signs, symptoms, and ill-defined conditions (n=18; 10.0%); and digestive system disorders (n=14; 7.8%).

Compared to males, female service members had notably higher percentages of medical evacuations for mental health disorders and genitourinary system disorders (Table 1). In contrast, male service members had higher percentages of evacuation for injuries (both battle and non-battle related). There was just 1 medical evacuation of a female service member during 2019 for a battle injury.

Within the various demographic and military characteristics of those service members who were evacuated, the largest numbers and proportions of evacuees were among non-Hispanic white service members, those aged 20–24 years, members of the Army, junior and senior enlisted personnel, and those in repair/engineering occupations (Table 2). In 2019, most medical evacuations (85.2%) were characterized as having routine precedence. The remainder had priority (10.9%) or urgent (3.9%) precedence. All but 27 (2.4%) of the medical evacuations were accomplished through military transport (Table 2).

Most frequent specific diagnoses

Among both males and females in 2019, a mental health disorder (“reaction to severe stress, and adjustment disorders”) was the most frequent specific diagnosis (3-digit ICD-10 diagnosis code: F43) during initial medical encounters after evacuations (Table 3). Of the remaining 5 most common 3-digit diagnoses associated with evacuations of males, 1 was related to digestive system diseases (“inguinal hernia”); 3 were injuries (“fracture at wrist and hand level,” “intracranial injury,” and “injury of muscle, fascia and tendon at shoulder and upper arm level”); and 1 was related to musculoskeletal disorders (“dorsalgia”) (Table 3).

Of the remaining top 5 diagnoses most frequently associated with evacuations of female service members, 1 was a condition that primarily affects women (“unspecified lump in breast”); 1 was an injury (“fracture of lower leg, including ankle”); 2 were mental health disorders (“other anxiety disorders” and “major depressive disorder, single episode”); and 1 was related to musculoskeletal disorders (“dorsalgia”) (Table 3).

Disposition

Of the 1,142 medical evacuations reported in 2019, a total of 486 (42.6%) resulted in inpatient encounters. About three-quarters (75.7%) of all service members who were hospitalized after medical evacuations were discharged back to duty. Slightly less than one-fifth (18.7%) of service members who were hospitalized after medical evacuations were transferred or discharged to other facilities (Table 4).

Return to duty dispositions were much more likely after hospitalizations for non-battle injuries (72.3%) than for battle injuries (30.0%). The majority (70.0%) of battle injury-related hospitalizations and a little more than one-sixth (17.0%) of non-battle injury-related hospitalizations resulted in transfers/discharges to other facilities (Table 4).

Nearly three-fifths (n=656; 57.4%) of all medical evacuations resulted in outpatient encounters only. Of the service members who were treated exclusively in outpatient settings after evacuations, the majority (80.9%) were discharged back to duty without work/duty limitations; 13.9% were released with work/duty limitations; and less than 1% each were admitted/transferred to a civilian hospital, immediately referred, or discharged to “home sick” for recuperation. Service members treated as outpatients after battle injury-related evacuations were more likely to be released without limitations (n=14; 77.8%) than medical evacuees treated as outpatients for non-battle injuries (n=125; 69.1%) (Table 4).

EDITORIAL COMMENT

This report documented that only 5.1% of all medical evacuations during 2019 were associated with battle injuries. Counts of evacuations for battle injuries peaked in 2017, likely reflecting an increase in the number of service members deployed to the CENTCOM AOR. More evacuations in 2019 were attributed to mental health disorders than to any other category of illness or injury; the next most common categories, in descending order of frequency, were non-battle injuries and poisonings; signs, symptoms, and ill-defined conditions; digestive system disorders; and musculoskeletal disorders. Evacuations during the entire 5-year surveillance period followed a similar but slightly different pattern, with mental health disorders being the most frequent followed by non-battle injuries; musculoskeletal disorders; signs, symptoms and ill-defined conditions; and digestive system disorders. Of the major diagnostic categories for which there was more than 1 medical evacuation for both men and women, only percentages of evacuations for injuries (battle and non-battle) were noticeably higher among males compared to females. As in previous years, the majority of service members who were evacuated were returned to normal duty status following their post-evacuation hospitalizations or outpatient encounters. However, about one-half of those evacuated for battle injuries were returned to duty immediately after their initial healthcare encounters.

Overall, the changes in numbers of medical evacuations over the course of the surveillance period reflect the end of Operation Enduring Freedom in 2014, the beginning of Operation Freedom’s Sentinel, and the deployment of troops to Afghanistan, Iraq, and Syria.5,6 The relatively low percentage of medical evacuations in 2019 suggests that most deployers were sufficiently healthy and ready for their deployments and received the medical care in theater necessary to complete their assignments without having to be evacuated. Moreover, the fact that very few medical evacuations were conducted for chronic conditions such as hematologic disorders and congenital anomalies supports the idea that most deployers were sufficiently healthy for deployment. However, it is not surprising that such conditions are occasionally diagnosed among deployed service members. For example, there was 1 medical evacuation for congenital anomalies in 2019 that was due to an instance of “other congenital malformations of nervous system” (data not shown). Because congenital anomalies may not be identified and diagnosed until later in life,7 the infrequent detection of such diagnoses during deployment is not unexpected.

The proportion of medical evacuations attributed to mental health disorders (27.1%) was similar to the proportion reported in recent MSMR analyses of medical evacuations in 2018 (28.2%) but slightly higher than the proportion reported in 2017 (23.6%) and considerably higher than the proportion (11.6%) reported in an earlier MSMR report examining evacuations from Iraq during a 9-year period between 2003 and 2011.1,8 However, that article also reported that during the last 4 years (2008–2011) of the surveillance period, as the proportion of evacuations for battle injuries fell sharply, the proportions of evacuations for mental disorders increased dramatically for both males (peak of 20.9% in 2010) and females (peak of 26.6% in 2010). Although some studies have indicated improved access to mental health care in deployed settings, the results from the current analysis indicate that mental health diagnoses still represent the single most common basis for medical evacuations out of the CENTCOM AOR.9 This could be due, at least in part, to variations in the availability of mental health care in deployed settings. In these settings, the distribution of providers and clinics that deliver such services is uneven and varies according to factors such as the number of deployed personnel and the assessed needs of the particular unit.9 In addition, although the number of mental healthcare providers in Afghanistan increased from 2005 through 2010, this number decreased after 2013 as part of the overall drawdown of U.S. troops from the region.9

Several important limitations should be considered when interpreting the results of this analysis. Direct comparisons of numbers and percentages of medical evacuations by cause, as between males and females, can be misleading; for example, such comparisons do not account for differences between the groups in other characteristics (e.g., age, grade, military occupation, locations, and activities while deployed) that are significant determinants of medical evacuation risk. Also, for this report, most causes of medical evacuations were estimated from primary (first-listed) diagnoses that were recorded during hospitalizations or initial outpatient encounters after evacuation. In some cases, clinical evaluations in fixed medical treatment facilities after medical evacuations may have ruled out serious conditions that were clinically suspected in the theater. For this analysis, the causes of such evacuations reflect diagnoses that were determined after evaluations outside of the theater rather than diagnoses—perhaps of severe disease—that were clinically suspected in the theater. To the extent that this occurred, the causes of some medical evacuations may seem surprisingly minor.

Overall, the results highlight the continued need to tailor force health protection policies, training, supplies, equipment, and practices based on characteristics of the deployed force (e.g., combat vs. support; male vs. female) and the nature of the military operations (e.g., combat vs. humanitarian assistance).

REFERENCES

1. Armed Forces Health Surveillance Branch. Update: Medical evacuations, active and reserve components, U.S. Armed Forces, 2018. MSMR. 2019;26(7):28–33.

2. Garamone J. Dunford: U.S. Forces busy implementing defense strategy worldwide. DoD News. 28 August 2018. https://dod.defense.gov/News/Article/Article/1614521/dunford-us-forces-busyimplementing-defense-strategy-worldwide/. Accessed 14 April 2020.

3. Lead Inspector General for Overseas Contingency Operations. Operation Freedom’s Sentinel: Report to the United States Congress. https://media.defense.gov/2018/May/21/2001919976/-1/-1/1/FY2018_LIG_OCO_OFS2_MAR2018_3.PDF. Accessed 14 April 2020.

4. North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Resolute Support Mission (RSM): key facts and figures. https://www.nato.int/nato_static_fl2014/assets/pdf/pdf_2018_06/20180608_2018-06-RSM-placemat.pdf. Accessed 14 April 2020.

5. Office of the Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller)/Chief Financial Officer. Defense Budget Overview. United States Department of Defense Fiscal Year 2020 Budget Request. March 2019.

6. Defense Manpower Data Center. DoD personnel, workforce reports and publications. https://www.dmdc.osd.mil/appj/dwp/dwp_reports.jsp. Accessed 12 March 2019.

7. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services and the National Center for Health Statistics. ICD-10-CM Official Guidelines for Coding and Reporting. FY 2018. https://www.cms.gov/Medicare/Coding/ICD10/Downloads/2018-ICD-10-CM-Coding-Guidelines.pdf. Accessed 17 April 2020.

8. Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center. Medical evacuations from Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation New Dawn, active and reserve components, U.S. Armed Forces, 2003–2011. MSMR. 2012;19(2):18–21.

9. United States Government Accountability Office. Report to Congressional Committees. Defense health care: DOD is meeting most mental health care access standards, but it needs a standard for follow-up appointments. April 2016. https://www.gao.gov/assets/680/676851.pdf. Accessed 17 April 2020.

Surveillance Snapshot: Illness and Injury Burdens, Reserve Component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2019

TABLE 1. Numbers and percentages of medical encounters following medical evacuation from theater, by ICD-10 major diagnostic category, U.S. Armed Forces, 2019

TABLE 2. Demographic and military characteristics of service members medically evacuated from the U.S. Central Command area of responsibility, U.S. Armed Forces, 2019

TABLE 3. Most frequent 3-digit ICD-10 diagnoses from medical evacuations, by sex, U.S. Armed Forces, 2019

TABLE 4. Dispositions after inpatient or outpatient encounters following medical evacuation, U.S. Armed Forces, 2019

You also may be interested in...

Characterizing the Contribution of Chronic Pain Diagnoses to the Neurologic Burden of Disease, Active Component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2009–2018

Article
10/1/2020
Belgian Medical Component 1st Lt. Olivier, a physical therapist, adjusts the neck of a pilot from the 332nd Air Expeditionary Wing, June 22, 2017, in Southwest Asia. Aircrew from the 332nd AEW received treatment for pains associated with flying high performance aircraft through a partnership program with the Belgian Medical Component. (U.S. Air Force photo/Senior Airman Damon Kasberg)

Recommended Content:

Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

Surveillance Snapshot: Influenza Immunization Among U.S. Armed Forces Healthcare Workers, August 2015–April 2020

Article
10/1/2020
NORFOLK (Oct. 15, 2019) Lt. Sipriano Marte administers an influenza vaccination to Airman Tyler French in the intensive care unit aboard the Wasp-class amphibious assault ship USS Kearsarge (LHD 3). Kearsarge is underway conducting routine training. (U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist Petty Officer 3rd Class Jacob Vermeulen/Released)

Surveillance Snapshot: Influenza Immunization Among U.S. Armed Forces Healthcare Workers, August 2015–April 2020

Recommended Content:

Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

Acute and Chronic Pancreatitis, Active Component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2004–2018

Article
10/1/2020
Istock 916163392 3D illustration of human body organs (pancreas).

Acute and Chronic Pancreatitis, Active Component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2004–2018

Recommended Content:

Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

Update: Surveillance of Spotted Fever Rickettsioses at Army Installations in the U.S. Central and Atlantic Regions, 2012–2018

Article
9/1/2020
This photograph depicts a dorsal view of a female Gulf Coast tick, Amblyomma maculatum. This tick species is a known vector for Rickettsial organisms, Rickettsia parkeri, and Ehrlichia ruminantium, formerly Cowdria ruminantium. R. parkeri is a member of the spotted fever group of rickettsial diseases affecting humans, while E. ruminantium causes heartwater disease, an infectious, noncontagious, tick-borne disease of domestic, and wild ruminants, including cattle, sheep, goats, antelope, and buffalo. Note the considerably smaller scutum, or shield covering only a small region of its dorsal abdomen, unlike its male counterpart, an example of which can be seen in PHIL 10877, and 10878, which sports a scutum covering its entire dorsal abdomen. The smaller scutum in the female enables its abdomen to expand considerably, leading to an engorged appearance after ingesting its host blood meal. (Content provider: CDC/ Dr. Christopher Paddock)

Recommended Content:

Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

Update: Routine Screening for Antibodies to Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Civilian Applicants for U.S. Military Service and U.S. Armed Forces, Active and Reserve Components, January 2015–June 2020

Article
9/1/2020
Spc. Jayson Sanchez of the Army Reserve’s 77th Sustainment Brigade receives a blood draw from phlebotomist Nikole Horrell during the mass medical-readiness event hosted Aug. 8-9, 2015 by the Army Reserve’s 99th Regional Support Command at Joint Base McGuire-Dix-Lakehurst, N.J., in an effort to increase Soldier readiness throughout the northeastern United States. More than 300 Army Reserve and Army National Guard Soldiers had the opportunity to take care of their Periodic Health Assessments, dental exams, vision screenings, HIV blood draws, immunizations, hearing tests, LOD processing and temporary/permanent profiles during the event. (U.S. Army photo by Sgt. Salvatore Ottaviano, 99th Readiness Division)

Recommended Content:

Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

Update: Incidence of Inguinal Hernia and Repair Procedures and Rate of Subsequent Pain Diagnoses, Active Component Service Members, U.S. Armed Forces, 2010–2019

Article
9/1/2020
Senegalese and Vermont National Guard medical care professionals repair a hernia at the Hopital de la Paix in Ziguinchor, Senegal, Feb. 14, 2018. Vermont Guardsmen work alongside Senegalese medical personnel to obtain real-world experience while providing valuable medical services as part of a Medical Readiness Training Exercise. (U.S. Army National Guard photo by Sgt. Avery Cunningham)

Recommended Content:

Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

DHA recognizes 25 years of AFHSB's health surveillance journal

Article
8/12/2020
Medical technicians wearing masks and entering information on a computer

25 Years of Surveillance Reporting in Monthly Journal

Recommended Content:

Armed Forces Health Surveillance Branch | Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

Commentary: The Limited Role of Vaccines in the Prevention of Acute Gastroenteritis

Article
8/1/2020
This is a medical illustration of drug-resistant, Shigella sp. bacteria, presented in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) publication entitled, Antibiotic Resistance Threats in the United States, 2019 (Content provider: CDC/Antibiotic Resistance Coordination and Strategy Unit; Photo credit:  CDC/Stephanie Rossow).

Commentary: The Limited Role of Vaccines in the Prevention of Acute Gastroenteritis

Recommended Content:

Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

Diarrhea and Associated Illness Characteristics and Risk Factors Among British Active Duty Service Members at Askari Storm Training Exercise, Nanyuki, Kenya, January–June 2014

Article
8/1/2020
This illustration was updated in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC’s) Antibiotic Resistance Threats in the United States, 2019. This illustration depicts a three-dimensional computer-generated image of a cluster of drug-resistant, curly-cue shaped, Campylobacter sp. bacteria. The artistic recreation was based upon scanning electron microscopic imagery (Content provider: CDC/Antibiotic Resistance Coordination and Strategy Unit; Photo credit:  CDC/Alissa Eckert).

Diarrhea and Associated Illness Characteristics and Risk Factors Among British Active Duty Service Members at Askari Storm Training Exercise, Nanyuki, Kenya, January–June 2014

Recommended Content:

Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

Update: Incidence of Acute Gastrointestinal Infections and Diarrhea, Active Component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2010–2019

Article
8/1/2020
This illustration was updated in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC’s) Antibiotic Resistance Threats in the United States, 2019. This illustration depicts a three-dimensional, computer-generated image of a group of extended-spectrum ß-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae bacteria, in this case, Escherichia coli. The artistic recreation was based upon scanning electron microscopic imagery. This is an excellent visual example of the long, whip-like, peritrichous flagellae, sprouting from what appear to be random points on the organism’s exterior, as well as the numerous shorter, and finer fimbriae, imparting a furry look to the bacteria (Content provider: CDC/Antibiotic Resistance Coordination and Strategy Unit; Photo credit:  CDC/Alissa Eckert).

Update: Incidence of Acute Gastrointestinal Infections and Diarrhea, Active Component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2010–2019

Recommended Content:

Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

Surveillance Snapshot: Norovirus Outbreaks in Military Forces, 2015–2019

Article
8/1/2020
Based on electron microscopic imagery, this three-dimensional illustration provides a graphical representation of a single norovirus virion. Though subtle, the different colors represent different regions of the organism’s outer protein shell, or capsid (Content provider: CDC/Jessica A. Allen; Photo credit: CDC/Alissa Eckert).

Surveillance Snapshot: Norovirus Outbreaks in Military Forces, 2015–2019

Recommended Content:

Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

Surveillance Snapshot: Cervical Cancer Screening Among U.S. Military Service Women in the Millennium Cohort Study, 2003–2015

Article
7/1/2020
Lt. Cmdr. Leslye Green, staff obstetrician and gynecologist, Naval Hospital Pensacola (NHP), uses a model to discuss cervical cancer with a patient at NHP. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), cervical cancer is highly preventable because screening tests for cervical cancer and vaccines to protect against human papillomavirus (HPV), which is the main cause of cervical cancer, are readily available. Cervical cancer is highly treatable and associated with long survival and good quality of life when it is detected early. (U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 1st Class Brannon Deugan)

Surveillance Snapshot: Cervical Cancer Screening Among U.S. Military Service Women in the Millennium Cohort Study, 2003–2015

Recommended Content:

Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

Epidemiology of Functional Neurological Disorder, Active Component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2000-2018

Article
7/1/2020
MRI film (iStock.com/temet)

Epidemiology of Functional Neurological Disorder, Active Component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2000-2018

Recommended Content:

Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

Hearing Conservation Measures of Effectiveness Across the Department of Defense

Article
7/1/2020
Kori Reese, an audiology technician at Naval Branch Health Clinic Jacksonville’s occupational health clinic, conducts a hearing exam with Airman Diosney Moraga. Naval Hospital Jacksonville and Navy Medical Readiness and Training Command Jacksonville won the Chief of Naval Operation’s Award for Achievement in Ashore Safety (large non-industrial command) for Fiscal Year 2019. (U.S. Navy photo by Jacob Sippel).

Recommended Content:

Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

Alcohol-Related Emergency Department Visits, Hospitalizations, and Co-Occurring Injuries, Active Component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2009–2018

Article
7/1/2020
Sailors simulate a drunk driving accident during a Keep What You've Earned fair on Naval Base Kitsap Bangor. The fair encourages responsible alcohol use by celebrating the achievements in the sailors' Navy careers and actively engages sailors as advocates for responsible drinking. (U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 3rd Class Chris Brown)

Recommended Content:

Medical Surveillance Monthly Report
<< < 1 2 3 4 5  ... > >> 
Showing results 1 - 15 Page 1 of 12

DHA Address: 7700 Arlington Boulevard | Suite 5101 | Falls Church, VA | 22042-5101

Some documents are presented in Portable Document Format (PDF). A PDF reader is required for viewing. Download a PDF Reader or learn more about PDFs.