Skip to main content

Military Health System

Surveillance Snapshot: Cervical Cancer Screening Among U.S. Military Service Women in the Millennium Cohort Study, 2003–2015

Image of Lt. Cmdr. Leslye Green, staff obstetrician and gynecologist, Naval Hospital Pensacola (NHP), uses a model to discuss cervical cancer with a patient. Lt. Cmdr. Leslye Green, staff obstetrician and gynecologist, Naval Hospital Pensacola (NHP), uses a model to discuss cervical cancer with a patient at NHP. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), cervical cancer is highly preventable because screening tests for cervical cancer and vaccines to protect against human papillomavirus (HPV), which is the main cause of cervical cancer, are readily available. Cervical cancer is highly treatable and associated with long survival and good quality of life when it is detected early. (U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 1st Class Brannon Deugan)

Recommended Content:

Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

The Millennium Cohort Study is a prospective study that was initiated in 2001 and includes over 200,000 current and prior U.S. military service members.1 Questionnaires are sent to participants approximately every 3 years to collect information on service related experiences as well as mental, physical, and behavioral health. Compliance with contemporary cervical cancer screening recommendations was determined among service women enrolled in the Millennium Cohort Study during 2003–2015. Current cervical cancer screening recommendations call for a Pap smear alone every 3 years in women aged 21–65 years or for a human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA test with or without a Pap test every 5 years for women aged 30–65 years.2 Women were considered eligible for screening in a given year if they were aged 21–62 years on the last day of the year, had served in the active component (i.e., at least 9 months in active component pay and strength rosters) for the concurrent year and 2 years before, had not had a hysterectomy, and had not separated from the military. Women were considered compliant with screening recommendations between 2003–2015 if they had a medical report of a Pap smear in the year of assessment or prior 2 calendar years. Women were also considered compliant with screening recommendations in 2013–2015 if they had HPV DNA testing completed within the previous 5 years.

Overall, among U.S. service women in the Millennium Cohort Study, the compliance rate increased from 61.2% in 2003 to a peak of 83.1% in 2010 then declined to a low of 59.8% in 2015 (Figure). During the first 7 years of the study period, compliance was highest among Air Force personnel. Between 2013 and 2015, compliance was highest among Coast Guard personnel. Compliance was lowest among Navy personnel in all but 1 year (2004) of the 13-year period. Compliance was also consistently higher for service women who had initiated the HPV vaccine than for women who had not (on average 6.3% higher). No differences in compliance were observed by cigarette smoking status, which was used as a surrogate measure of other health behaviors.

Author affiliations: Deployment Health Research Department in the Military Population Health Directorate, Naval Health Research Center, San Diego, CA (Dr. Matsuno, Dr. Porter, Mr. Warner, CAPT Wells); Leidos, San Diego, CA (Dr. Matsuno, Dr. Porter, Mr. Warner).

Disclaimer: One of the authors of this work is a military service member or employee of the U.S. Government. This work was prepared as part of their official duties. Title 17, U.S.C. §105 provides that copyright protection under this title is not available for any work of the U.S. Government. Title 17, U.S.C. §101 defines a U.S. Government work as work prepared by a military service member or employee of the U.S. Government as part of that person’s official duties. This report was supported by the Military Operational Medicine Research Program under work unit no. 60002. The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of the Department of the Navy, Department of Defense, or the U.S. Government.

 

References

Bulleted List for References

  1. Gray GC, Chesbrough KB, Ryan MA, et al. The Millennium Cohort Study: a 21-year prospective cohort study of 140,000 military personnel. Mil Med. 2002;167(6):483–488.
  2. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Final recommendation statement. Cervical cancer: screening. https://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/recommendation/cervical-cancer-screening?ds=1&s=pap. Accessed 9 April 2020.

FIGURE. Cervical screening rates among service women, by branch of service, U.S. Armed Forces, 2003–2015

You also may be interested in...

Brief Report: The Challenge of Interpreting Repeated Positive Tests for SARS-CoV-2 Among Military Service Members, Fort Jackson, SC, 2020–2021

Article
10/1/2021
Gloved hand holding an example of a negative rapid test for the SARS-CoV-2 virus (COVID-19).

Recommended Content:

Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

Surveillance Snapshot: History of COVID-19 Vaccination Among Air Force Recruits Arriving at Basic Training, March 2–June 15, 2021

Article
10/1/2021
COVID-19 vaccine bottle and syringes

Recommended Content:

Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

Is Suicide a Social Phenomenon during the COVID-19 Pandemic? Differences by Birth Cohort on Suicide Among Active Component Army Soldiers, Jan.1, 2000–June 4, 2021

Article
9/1/2021
Spc. Brittney VerBerkmoes speaks among fellow Soldiers in a group centered on finding a way for the Army to mitigate the amount of suicides that occurs among Soldiers.

Is Suicide a Social Phenomenon during the COVID-19 Pandemic? Differences by Birth Cohort on Suicide Among Active Component Army Soldiers, 1 January 2000–4 June 2021

Recommended Content:

Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

Update: Routine Screening for Antibodies to Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Civilian Applicants for U.S. Military Service and U.S. Armed Forces, Active and Reserve Components, January 2016–June 2021

Article
9/1/2021
HIV Awareness graphic showing test tubes with HIV + and HIV - labels

Update: Routine Screening for Antibodies to Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Civilian Applicants for U.S. Military Service and U.S. Armed Forces, Active and Reserve Components, Jan. 2016–June 2021

Recommended Content:

Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Association between Perceived Barriers to Behavioral Health Care and Intentions to Leave the U.S. Army

Article
9/1/2021
U.S. Army Central Reserve component Soldiers swear the oath of enlistment during a mass reenlistment ceremony in celebration of the U.S. Army Reserve 113th birthday at Camp Arifjan, Kuwait, April 23, 2021.

Recommended Content:

Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

Surveillance Snapshot: A Simple Model Estimating the Impact of COVID-19 on Lost Duty Days Among U.S. Service Members

Article
9/1/2021
U.S. Navy Hospital Corpsman 2nd Class Julian Gordon administers a COVID-19 test to a U.S. Marine

Recommended Content:

Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

Brief Report: Relationships between Self-reported Psychological Conditions and Aggressive Behaviors Among Crew Members of a U.S. Navy Aircraft Carrier, January 2021

Article
9/1/2021
A U.S. Marine Corps drill instructor with Golf Company, 2nd Recruit Training Battalion, motivates a recruit during a Marine Corps Martial Arts Program (MCMAP) training session at Marine Corps Recruit Depot, San Diego, Aug. 2, 2021.

Brief Report: Relationships between Self-reported Psychological Conditions and Aggressive Behaviors Among Crew Members of a U.S. Navy Aircraft Carrier, Jan. 2021

Recommended Content:

Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

Update: Mental Health Disorders and Mental Health Problems, Active Component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2016–2020

Article
8/1/2021

Update: Mental Health Disorders and Mental Health Problems, Active Component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2016–2020

Recommended Content:

Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

Brief Report: Prevalence of Screening Positive for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Among Service Members Following Combat-Related Injury

Article
8/1/2021

Recommended Content:

Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

Surveillance of Mental and Behavioral Health Care Utilization and Use of Telehealth, Active Component, U.S. Armed Forces, 1 January 2019–30 September 2020

Article
8/1/2021

Recommended Content:

Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

Mental Health Disorders, Behavioral Health Problems, Fatigue and Sleep Outcomes in Remotely Piloted Aircraft/Manned Aircraft Pilots, and Remotely Piloted Aircraft Crew, U.S. Air Force, 1 October 2003–30 June 2019

Article
8/1/2021

Recommended Content:

Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

Long-Acting Reversible Contraceptive Use, Active Component Service Women, U.S. Armed Forces, 2016–2020

Article
7/1/2021
Hands holding an intrauterine device

Long-Acting Reversible Contraceptive Use, Active Component Service Women, U.S. Armed Forces, 2016–2020

Recommended Content:

Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

Oral Cavity and Pharynx Cancers, Active Component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2007–2019

Article
7/1/2021
Two hands holding chewing tobacco

Oral Cavity and Pharynx Cancers, Active Component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2007–2019

Recommended Content:

Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

The Evolution of Military Health Surveillance Reporting: A Historical Review

Article
7/1/2021
Screenshot of the inaugural issue of the Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

The Evolution of Military Health Surveillance Reporting: A Historical Review

Recommended Content:

Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

Department of Defense Mid-Season Vaccine Effectiveness Estimates for the 2019– 2020 Influenza Season

Article
6/1/2021
201019-N-PC065-1062 NORFOLK (Oct. 19, 2020) Hospital Corpsman 2nd Class Sashee Robinson, assigned to amphibious transport dock ship USS Arlington (LPD 24), administers an influenza vaccine to Machinery Repairman 2nd Class Hannah Swearingen in medical aboard the Arlington. Influenza vaccines are an annual medical readiness requirement throughout the Department of Defense. (U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class John Bellino/Released)

Department of Defense Mid-Season Vaccine Effectiveness Estimates for the 2019– 2020 Influenza Season

Recommended Content:

Medical Surveillance Monthly Report
<< < 1 2 3 4 5  ... > >> 
Showing results 46 - 60 Page 4 of 13
Refine your search
Last Updated: October 26, 2022
Follow us on Instagram Follow us on LinkedIn Follow us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter Follow us on YouTube Sign up on GovDelivery