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Urinary Tract Infections in Active Component U.S. Armed Forces Women Before and After Routine Screening Pap Examination.

Study

Abstract

It has been suggested that Pap tests, when used as surrogate markers for routine pelvic examinations in asymptomatic women, may be associated with an increased short-term risk of urinary tract infections (UTIs). This retrospective cohort study used Defense Medical Surveillance System (DMSS) data from 2007 through 2013 to compare the incidence of UTIs in active component women before and after receiving a routine screening Pap examination. The pre-Pap (baseline) UTI incidence rate in this cohort was 105.9 per 1,000 person-years (p-yrs) compared to 129.8 per 1,000 p-yrs post-Pap; the rate ratio was 1.23 (95% CI: 1.18-1.27). The adjusted relative risk of UTI post-Pap was 1.14 (95% CI: 1.10-1.18) and the adjusted percentage of UTIs attributable to a Pap test in the post-exposure period was 12.2% (95% CI: 9.1-15.2). Routine Pap tests, when used as a surrogate marker for pelvic examination, may be a modifiable risk factor for UTI in active component U.S. military women.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Release Date/Publication: June 01, 2015
  • Citation: Rossi C, Hunt DJ, Clark LL, Rohrbeck P. Urinary Tract Infections in Active Component U.S. Armed Forces Women Before and After Routine Screening Pap Examination. MSMR. 2015 Jun;22(6):13-9.

Update: Routine screening for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus, civilian applicants for U.S. military service and U.S. Armed Forces, active and reserve components, January 2009-June 2014.

Study

Abstract

This report contains an update through June 2014 of the results of routine screening for antibodies to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among civilian applicants for military service and among members of the active and reserve components of the U.S. Armed Forces. Seroprevalences among civilian applicants in 2013 and the first half of 2014 (0.19 and 0.15 per 1,000 tested, respectively) were markedly lower than in 2012 (0.27 per 1,000 tested). In nearly every component of every service, seroprevalences in 2013 and 2014 were either similar or lower than in prior years; however, in the Army National Guard, seroprevalences increased each year and approximately doubled from 2010 (0.18 per 1,000 tested) to 2013-2014 (0.35-0.41 per 1,000 tested). Among active and reserve component service members, seroprevalences continue to be higher among Army and Navy members and males than their respective counterparts.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Release Date/Publication: August 01, 2014
  • Citation: AFHSC. Update: Routine screening for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus, civilian applicants for U.S. military service and U.S. Armed Forces, active and reserve components, January 2009-June 2014. MSMR. 2014 Aug;21(8):16-22.

Update: Malaria, U.S. Armed Forces, 2015.

Study

Abstract

U.S. service members are at risk of acquiring malaria infection when they are located in endemic areas because of long-term duty assignments, participation in shorter-term contingency operations, or personal travel. The number of malaria cases among U.S. military service members in 2015 (n=30) was the lowest annual count in at least 20 years and follows 3 previous years of greatly reduced incidence. The relatively low numbers of cases during 2012-2015 mainly reflect decreases in cases acquired in Afghanistan as the number of troops who served in Afghanistan sharply diminished in those years. About 43% of the 2015 cases were caused by Plasmodium falciparum (n=13) and 13% by Plasmodium vivax (n=4); about one-third of cases (37%) were reported as "unspecified" malaria. Malaria was diagnosed at or reported from 21 different medical facilities in the U.S., Afghanistan, Germany, and Korea. Providers of health care to military members should be knowledgeable regarding, and vigilant for, clinical presentations of malaria outside of endemic areas.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Release Date/Publication: January 01, 2016
  • Citation: Armed Forces Health Surveillance Branch. Update: Malaria, U.S. Armed Forces, 2015. MSMR. 2016 Jan;23(1):2-6.

Unintended pregnancy among active-duty women in the United States military, 2011.

Study

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Unintended pregnancy among active-duty women in the United States military, 2011. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional data came from the 2011 Department of Defense Health Related Behaviors Survey of Active Duty Military Personnel; 9038 women provided data on unintended pregnancy. Unintended pregnancy rates were calculated for all women and by available background characteristics, including military branch, marital status (married versus unmarried), pay grade (enlisted versus officer) and deployment in the previous 12months. Multivariable logistic regression testing for associations between unintended pregnancy and subgroups was also performed. RESULTS: The unintended pregnancy rate was 72/1000 women. Married women (odds ratio (OR) 1.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11-1.54) and enlisted women (OR 2.71, 95% CI 1.99-3.69) had higher odds of reporting unintended pregnancy compared to their counterparts, as did women in the Navy (OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.19-1.91) and Marine Corps (OR 2.38, 95% CI 1.92-2.95) compared to women in the Air Force. Unintended pregnancy rates did not differ between women who were deployed in the previous 12months and nondeployed women. Additionally, 10% of women who were deployed for 11-12months in 2011 reported an unintended pregnancy in the previous year, suggesting that their pregnancies occurred during deployment. CONCLUSION: Unintended pregnancy is higher in the military, including during deployment, compared to the general U.S. population (52/1000 women). All branches need to address the issue in a comprehensive manner including evidence-based provision of contraception and education among servicemembers. IMPLICATIONS: Unintended pregnancy is high in the military, including during deployment; further efforts to improve evidence-based provision of contraception and education are needed.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Undetermined
  • Sponsoring Office:
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Undetermined
  • Release Date/Publication: December 01, 2015
  • Citation: Grindlay K, Grossman D. Unintended pregnancy among active-duty women in the United States military, 2011. Contraception. 2015 Dec;92(6):589-95.

U.S. Military Surveillance of Mental Disorders, 1998-2013.

Study

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Feature articles in the Medical Surveillance Monthly Report (MSMR) reflect the U.S. military's health surveillance priorities. This study examined whether the recent rise in the number of ambulatory encounters for mental disorders in the U.S. military associated with the Iraq and Afghanistan wars was reflected in a proportional increase in MSMR feature articles on this topic. METHODS: Articles published in the MSMR from January 1998 to December 2013 were examined to categorize feature articles according to health outcome. The proportion of articles by topic of outcome was compared with the proportion of all ambulatory encounters by category of disorder. RESULTS: Mental disorders constituted 13% of ambulatory encounters and were the topic of 11% of 329 feature articles during the period, a statistically nonsignificant difference. CONCLUSIONS: The increased number of encounters for mental disorders has been met with a proportional but delayed increase in the number of MSMR feature articles focusing on these disorders.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Undetermined
  • Release Date/Publication: February 01, 2016
  • Citation: Wicken C, Nevin R, Ritchie EC. U.S. Military Surveillance of Mental Disorders, 1998-2013. Psychiatr Serv. 2016 Feb 1;67(2):248-51.

Typhoid fever cases in the U.S. military.

Study

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Salmonella enterica, serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), a causative agent of enteric fever (typhoid fever), predominately affects populations in developing regions with poor access to clean food and water. In addition, travelers to these regions are at risk of exposure. METHODS: We report the epidemiological characteristics of S. Typhi cases among active duty United States military personnel from 1998 to 2011 using data obtained from the Defense Medical Surveillance System. Cases were identified based on International Classification for Disease Ninth Edition - Clinical Modification codes. RESULTS: We identified a total of 205 cases S. Typhi for an incidence of 1.09 per 100,000 person-years. Cases were on average 31.7 years old, predominately married (n = 129, 62.9 %), Caucasian (n = 142, 69.3 %), male (n = 176, 85.9 %), and had a high school education (n = 101, 49.3 %). Of the identified cases, 122 had received a Typhoid vaccination within 4 years of diagnosis. CONCLUSION: This study provides an overview of enteric fever in the United States military. The incidence was similar to the general U.S. population except for increased incidence from 1998 to 2000, perhaps attributable to operational deployments in that period. Given that vaccination is an effective primary prevention measure against typhoid fever, active monitoring of pre-deployment vaccine history is warranted.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Navy
  • Sponsoring Office: Naval Medical Research Center
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Navy
  • Release Date/Publication: October 01, 2015
  • Citation: Sorrell T, Selig DJ, Riddle MS, Porter CK. Typhoid fever cases in the U.S. military. BMC Infect Dis. 2015 Oct 14;15:424.

Tuberculosis contact investigation in a military health care setting: case report and evidence review.

Study

Abstract

Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global threat to the U.S. armed forces. A single individual with TB disease exerts an immediate and disruptive impact upon patients' lives, military operations, and daily functioning at military treatment facilities. Medical personnel in operational or limited-resource settings are sometimes challenged to perform a TB outbreak investigation with minimal specialized training or limited logistic assistance. This article presents a case of a patient with TB disease presenting to a large military treatment facility and outlines the current, evidence-based recommendations for performing a TB outbreak investigation.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Release Date/Publication: January 01, 2015
  • Citation: Moore AC, Clausen SS, Johnson LA. Tuberculosis contact investigation in a military health care setting: case report and evidence review. Mil Med. 2015 Jan;180(1):38-44

Tuberculosis as a force health protection threat to the United States military.

Study

Abstract

Tuberculosis (TB) is a communicable disease that poses a threat to force health protection to the U.S. military. The rate of TB disease in the military is low; however, there are unique challenges for its control in this setting. As a low-risk population, TB testing in the U.S. military can be scaled back from the universal testing approach used previously. Reactivation of latent TB infection (LTBI) present at accession into service is the most important factor leading to TB disease; therefore, its diagnosis and treatment among recruits should be given a high priority. Deployment and overseas military service is an uncommon but important source of TB infection, and rigorous surveillance should be ensured. Case management of TB disease and LTBI can be improved by the use of cohort reviews at the service and installation levels and case finding and delays in the diagnosis of TB disease can be improved by education of providers, as well as increased use of molecular diagnostic tests. Program outcomes can be improved by making LTBI treatment compulsory, offering shorter treatment regimens, and increasing accountability through oversight and evaluation. The diagnosis of LTBI can be improved by implementing targeted testing in all settings and reducing confirmatory interferon-gamma release assay testing.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Release Date/Publication: March 01, 2015
  • Citation: Sanchez JL, Sanchez JL, Cooper MJ, Hiser MJ, Mancuso JD. Tuberculosis as a force health protection threat to the United States military. Mil Med. 2015 Mar;180(3):276-84.

Trends in Vitamin A, C, D, E, K Supplement Prescriptions From Military Treatment Facilities: 2007 to 2011.

Study

Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Although prior studies have examined the prevalence of dietary supplement use among various populations, data on single vitamins prescribed by health care providers are limited. OBJECTIVE: This study examined trends in single-vitamin supplement (A, C, D, E, K) prescriptions by providers from military treatment facilities from 2007 to 2011. METHODS: We examined prescription data from the Department of Defense Pharmacy Data Transaction Service to determine trends in the aforementioned single-vitamin supplement prescriptions. Prescription rates per 1,000 active duty personnel were estimated using population data retrieved from the Defense Medical Epidemiology Database (i.e., [number of prescriptions/population size] × 1,000). RESULTS: Across the 5-year period, the number of vitamin D prescriptions per 1,000 active duty personnel increased 454%. In contrast, the number of vitamin A, vitamin E, and vitamin K prescriptions per 1,000 active duty personnel decreased by 32%, 53%, and 29% respectively. Vitamin C prescriptions remained relatively constant. Across all age groups, total single-vitamin supplement prescriptions increased by 180%. CONCLUSION: Together, prescriptions examined in this study increased steadily from 2007 to 2011, primarily because of the increase in vitamin D prescriptions. The exhibited trend reflects the current general-population pattern of dietary supplement use, with large increases in vitamin D and declines in vitamin E.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Release Date/Publication: July 01, 2015
  • Citation: Morioka TY, Bolin JT, Attipoe S, Jones DR, Stephens MB, Deuster PA. Trends in Vitamin A, C, D, E, K Supplement Prescriptions From Military Treatment Facilities: 2007 to 2011. Mil Med. 2015 Jul;180(7):748-53.

Trends in the diagnosis of SLAP lesions in the US military.

Study

Abstract

PURPOSE: Shoulder pathology, particularly SLAP (superior labrum anterior-posterior) lesions, is prevalent in overhead athletes and physically active individuals. The aim of this study is to quantify the burden of SLAP lesions in the military and establish risk factors for diagnosis. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of all service members diagnosed with a SLAP lesion (International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision code 840.70) in the Defense Medical Epidemiological Database between 2002 and 2009 was performed. Available epidemiological risk factors including age, sex, race, military rank, and branch of service were evaluated using multivariate Poisson regression analysis, and cumulative and subgroup incidence rates were calculated. RESULTS: During the study period, approximately 23,632 SLAP lesions were diagnosed among a population at risk of 11,082,738, resulting in an adjusted incidence rate of 2.13 per 1,000 person-years. The adjusted annual incidence rate for SLAP lesions increased from 0.31 cases per 1,000 person-years in 2002 to 1.88 cases per 1,000 person-years in 2009, with an average annual increase of 21.2 % (95 % CI 20.7 %, 22.0 %, p < 0.0001) during the study period. Age, sex, race, branch of military service, and military rank were independent risk factors associated with the incidence rate of SLAP lesion (p < 0.01). Male service members were over twofold more likely (IRR, 2.12; 95 % CI 2.01, 2.23) to sustain a SLAP lesion when compared with females. Increasing age category was associated with a statistically significant increase in the incidence rate for SLAP lesions in the present study (p < 0.001). After controlling for the other variables, those individuals of white race, enlisted ranks, or Marine Corps service experienced the highest incidence rates for SLAP. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to establish the epidemiology of SLAP lesions within an active military cohort in the American population. Sex, age, race, military rank, and branch of military service were all independently associated with the incidence rate of SLAP lesions in this physically active population at high risk for shoulder injury. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Army
  • Sponsoring Office:
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Undetermined
  • Release Date/Publication: December 01, 2013
  • Citation: Waterman BR, Cameron KL, Hsiao M, Langston JR, Clark NJ, Owens BD. Trends in the diagnosis of SLAP lesions in the US military. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2013 Dec 10.

Trends in rates of chronic obstructive respiratory conditions among US militarypersonnel, 2001-2013.

Study

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The US military has been continuously engaged in combat operations since 2001. Assessing trends in respiratory health diagnoses during this time of prolonged military conflict can provide insight into associated changes in the burden of pulmonary conditions in the US military population. PURPOSE: To estimate and evaluate trends in rates of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases in the active duty US military population from 2001 through 2013. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of ambulatory medical encounter diagnosis data corresponding to a study base of over 18 million personnel-years was performed to estimate average rates and evaluate temporal trends in rates of chronic obstructive lung conditions. Differences in rates and the time trends of those rates were evaluated by branch of military service, military occupation, and military rank. RESULTS: During the 13-year period, we observed 482,670 encounters for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and allied conditions (ICD-9 490-496) among active duty military personnel. Over half (57%) of the medical encounters in this category were for a diagnosis of bronchitis, not specified as acute or chronic. There was a statistically significant 17.2% average increase in the annual rates of this nonspecific bronchitis diagnosis from 2001-2009 (95% CI: 13.5% to 21.1%), followed by a 23.6% annual decline in the rates from 2009 through 2013 (95% CI: 8.6% to 36.2%). Statistically significant declines were observed in the rates of chronic bronchitis over time (annual percentage decline: 3.1%; 95% CI: 0.5% to 6.6%) and asthma (annual percentage decline: 5.9%; 95% CI: 2.5% to 9.2%). A 1.6% annual increase in the rate of emphysema and a 0.1% increase in the rate of chronic airways obstruction (not elsewhere classified) over the study period were not statistically significant (P>.05). The magnitude of the estimated rates of these chronic obstructive lung conditions, and, to a lesser extent, the temporal trends in these rates, were sensitive to the requirement that there be persistence of the diagnosis evidenced in the medical record in order qualify as an incident case.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Army
  • Sponsoring Office: US Army Public Health Command
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Army
  • Release Date/Publication: July 01, 2014
  • Citation: Abraham JH, Clark LL, Sharkey JM, Baird CP. Trends in rates of chronic obstructive respiratory conditions among US military personnel, 2001-2013. US Army Med Dep J. 2014 Jul-Sep:33-43.

Trends in Mineral Supplement Prescriptions From Military Treatment Facilities: 2007 to 2011.

Study

Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Mineral supplements such as calcium and iron are readily available over the counter and are some of the most frequently consumed dietary supplements. Health care providers also prescribe mineral supplements for treatment of certain conditions and to maintain health. OBJECTIVE: This study examines trends in mineral-supplement prescriptions dispensed by military treatment facilities. METHODS: We examined data from the DoD Pharmacy Data Transaction Service to determine the nature of mineral-supplement prescriptions dispensed by MTFs from 2007 through 2011. RESULTS: Overall, 1,785,158 calcium, 844,655 iron, 166,207 magnesium, and 23,297 zinc prescriptions were dispensed over this 5-year period. Although the number of zinc prescriptions decreased considerably by an average of 30% across the 5-year period, calcium and magnesium prescriptions increased by 3% and 8%, respectively. The number of iron prescriptions dispensed was relatively stable across the 5 years. CONCLUSIONS: Patterns of mineral-supplement prescriptions in the military changed over the 5-year period examined. However, the patterns within the DoD medical system may or may not represent those of the civilian medical system. Because we could not determine the reasons why the mineral supplements were prescribed, we cannot report whether the supplements were effective for the intended uses.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Release Date/Publication: July 01, 2015
  • Citation: Attipoe S, Jones DR, Olsen CH, Stephens MB, Deuster PA. Trends in Mineral Supplement Prescriptions From Military Treatment Facilities: 2007 to 2011. Mil Med. 2015 Jul;180(7):742-7.

Trends in B-Vitamin Prescriptions From Military Treatment Facilities: 2007 to 2011.

Study

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Release Date/Publication: July 01, 2015
  • Citation: Krieger JA, Arnold RM, Attipoe S, Jones DR, Stephens MB, Deuster PA. Trends in B-Vitamin Prescriptions From Military Treatment Facilities: 2007 to 2011. Mil Med. 2015 Jul;180(7):732-6.

Trends in Androgen Prescriptions From Military Treatment Facilities: 2007 to 2011.

Study

Abstract

INTRODUCTION: The role of testosterone in health and quality of life has become increasingly visible and overtly marketed to the public. Some evidence suggests that testosterone levels in men may be low because of a variety of reasons, including stress and environmental exposures. OBJECTIVE: This study examines trends in testosterone prescriptions dispensed by military treatment facilities (MTFs). METHODS: We examined data from the Department of Defense Pharmacy Data Transaction Service to determine the nature of androgen prescriptions dispensed through MTFs from 2007 through 2011. RESULTS: The number of androgen prescriptions increased more than two-fold across the military from 19,494 in 2007 to 45,270 in 2011. Most prescriptions (99%) were for men. Androgen prescription rates rose 23% per year from 2007 through 2011 (p < 0.001, CI 23-24%). The prescription rate for 35- to 44-year-olds increased more than any other age group, with annual increases averaging 33% (p < 0.001, CI 32-34%). CONCLUSION: The number of androgen prescriptions within MTFs rose significantly from 2007 through 2011. This is similar to rises in androgen prescriptions seen in civilian medical systems. Clinical indications for the sharp increase in testosterone prescriptions are unknown, and the indications for clinically appropriate testosterone replacement need further clarification.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Release Date/Publication: July 01, 2015
  • Citation: Canup R, Bogenberger K, Attipoe S, Jones DR, Olsen CH, Stephens MB, Deuster PA. Trends in Androgen Prescriptions From Military Treatment Facilities: 2007 to 2011. Mil Med. 2015 Jul;180(7):728-31.

Treatment of active duty military with PTSD in primary care: A follow-up report.

Study

Abstract

First-line trauma-focused therapies offered in specialty mental health clinics do not reach many veterans and active duty service members with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Primary care is an ideal environment to expand access to mental health care. Several promising clinical case series reports of brief PTSD therapies adapted for primary care have shown positive results, but the long-term effectiveness with military members is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the long-term outcome of an open trial of a brief cognitive-behavioral primary care-delivered protocol developed specifically for deployment-related PTSD in a sample of 24 active duty military (15 men, 9 women). Measures of PTSD symptom severity showed statistically and clinically significant reductions from baseline to posttreatment that were maintained at the 6-month and 1-year follow-up assessments. Similar reductions were maintained in depressive symptoms and ratings of global mental health functioning.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Undetermined
  • Release Date/Publication: December 01, 2015
  • Citation: Cigrang JA, Rauch SA, Mintz J, Brundige A, Avila LL, Bryan CJ, Goodie JL, Peterson AL; STRONG STAR Consortium. Treatment of active duty military with PTSD in primary care: A follow-up report. J Anxiety Disord. 2015 Dec;36:110-4.
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