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A number of vaccine and non-vaccine interventions have been used to reduce the historically high burden of respiratory infections during military training. This snapshot displays the trend in hospitalizations for respiratory infections, stratified by major pathogens, and associated hospital days for all recruits in U.S. Air Force Basic Military Training at Joint Base San Antonio Lackland, TX. Preventive measures: •	Hand Hygiene •	“Head-to-toe” sleeping arrangements •	Liberal use of respiratory face masks •	Isolation of febrile trainees •	Stringent gas mask cleaning protocol •	Universal provision of seasonal influenza vaccine during non-summer months Interventions: •	Year-round adenovirus vaccine (Ad4 and Ad7) was reintroduced November 2011 •	Group A streptococcus chemoprophylaxis transitioned from oral penicillin to intramuscular benzathine penicillin January 2012 Surveillance Findings: •	No recruits have been hospitalized due to adenovirus or group A streptococcus since the respective interventions were implemented. •	The adenovirus vaccine and benzathine penicillin chemoprophylaxis decrease the likelihood of severe respiratory disease outbreaks •	Downward trend in respiratory infection hospitalizations Bar graph shows the number of hospitalized for respiratory infection  per 1 million training days as well as lost training days per 1 million training days (line graph) from October 2010 to February 2017. Color coding on chart: •	Orange for Adenovirus •	Gray is for Group A streptococcus •	Yellow is for Influenza •	Blue is for Other/ Unknown •	Red is for Lost Training Days Learn more at Health.mil/MSMR where you can find the surveillance snap shot from MSMR Vol. 24 No. 4 – May 2017. In background of infographic can see human body highlight the respiratory system.

This infographic displays the trend in hospitalizations for respiratory infections, stratified by major pathogens, and associated hospital days for all recruits in U.S. Air Force Basic Military Training at Joint Base San Antonio Lackland, TX.

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