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Mosquito-Borne Illnesses

Mosquito-borne illness is a significant public health concern, both to the Department of Defense (DoD) and to the broader national and international public health community. Here, we provide a collection of resources to assist in education and risk communication for partners and stakeholders on issues relating to mosquito control and prevention, as well as the prevention of mosquito-borne infectious disease.

mosquito-borne illness campaign graphic

To prevent an outbeak of any mosquito-borne illness, its important to control the mosquito population and protect yourself from mosquito bites.

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Joint efforts in search of a cure for tropical diseases

Article
1/11/2018
Dr. Gissella Vasquez, deputy director of the Entomology Department at the U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit No. 6, inspects a vector trap at Soto Cano Air Base, Honduras. The Joint Task Force-Bravo Medical Element, NAMRU- 6 and the Uniformed Service University of the Health Sciences partnered for an ongoing tropical disease study, testing live samples and collecting vectors that could be potential carriers for diseases. (U.S. Army photo by Maria Pinel)

Malaria. Dengue. Zika.

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Global Health Engagement | Mosquito-Borne Illnesses | Health Readiness

Army-developed Zika vaccine induces strong immune response in early trials

Article
12/8/2017
A team of U.S. Army researchers at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research are developing a Zika vaccine that has induced a strong immune response in early trials. (Photo Credit: U.S. Army photo by Jonathan Thompson, WRAIR)

A team of U.S. Army researchers at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research are developing a Zika vaccine

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Zika Virus | Medical Research and Development

Navy, international entomologists collaborate to fight malaria

Article
11/13/2017
Navy Lt. Cmdr. Ian Sutherland, technical director for the Navy Entomology Center of Excellence, sprays insecticide at the Centro De Atención Mis Años Dorados, a local nursing home, during Southern Partnership Station 17. (U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class Brittney Cannady)

The Navy Entomology Center of Excellence has taken an important role in reducing malaria

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Global Health Engagement | Malaria

Air Force launches aerial spray mission against mosquitoes

Article
9/25/2017
Air Force Reserve Tech. Sgt. Ken Hesser, a crew chief with the 910th Maintenance Group, Youngstown Air Reserve Station, Ohio, marshals a C-130H Hercules aircraft as the aircrew taxis the plane for takeoff on the flightline of the Kelly Field Annex. Hesser is among more than 90 Reserve Citizen Airmen supporting the 910th’s mosquito control aerial spray operations over areas of eastern Texas devastated by Hurricane Harvey. The 910th Airlift Wing operates the Department of Defense’s only aerial spray capability to control pest insect populations, eliminate undesired and invasive vegetation and disperse oil spills in large bodies of water. Due to large amounts of standing, polluted water, the numbers of pest insects are increasing significantly. (U.S. Air Force photo by Master Sgt. Bob Barko Jr.)

The Air Force Reserve’s 910th Airlift Wing continues aerial spray mosquito control application in areas of eastern Texas to assist Hurricane Harvey recovery efforts

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Preventing Mosquito-Borne Illnesses | Mosquito-Borne Illnesses | Emergency Preparedness and Response | Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief

DoD vaccine research saves military, civilian lives

Article
6/2/2017
Mosquitoes lie in a petri dish for testing. Personnel at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, a Defense Department biomedical facility in Silver Spring, Maryland, are researching and developing vaccines that can save military and civilian lives. (U.S. Air Force photo)

Personnel at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research are researching and developing vaccines that can save military and civilian lives

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Race for the Zika Vaccine: The Army Advantage

Video
4/28/2017
Race for the Zika Vaccine: The Army Advantage

When the Zika virus emerged as a global threat, the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research drew on its deep expertise in protecting Soldiers against malaria, Ebola and other flaviviruses, to develop the ZPIV vaccine in just six months. Watch to learn about the unique capabilities vaccinologists in the U.S. Army brought to the fight against Zika.

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Zika Virus

Malaria U.S. Armed Forces 2016

Infographic
4/17/2017
Malaria is an important health threat to U.S. service members located in endemic areas for: •	Long-term duty assignments •	Participation in short-term contingency operations •	Personal travel In 2016, 57 service members were diagnosed with or reported to have malaria from 25 different medical facilities in the U.S., Afghanistan, Germany, Korea, Djibouti, and Oman. In 2011, 124 service members were affected. Malaria Pie chart P. falciparum (45.6%; n=26) Plasmodium vivax (26.3%; n=15) highest since 2012 P. malariae and P. ovale (3.5%; n=2) Unspecified agents (24.6%; n=14) The relatively low numbers of cases during 2012-2016 mainly reflect a decrease in cases acquired in Afghanistan – a reduction due largely to the withdrawal of U.S. forces from that country. Providers of medical care to military members should be knowledgeable of, and vigilant for, clinical manifestations of malaria outside of endemic areas. To learn more about how malaria impacts U.S. Armed Forces visit Health.mil/AFHSB.

In 2016, 57 service members were diagnosed with or reported to have malaria from 25 different medical facilities in the U.S., Afghanistan, Germany, Korea, Djibouti, and Oman.

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Armed Forces Health Surveillance Branch | Malaria

Zika Virus Infections in Military Health System Beneficiaries

Infographic
4/17/2017
The introduction and rapid spread of the Zika virus (ZIKV), a Flavivrus of the Flaviviridae family, across the Western Hemisphere have posed a risk of infection to Military Health System (MHS) beneficiaries. This report documents: •	The impact of ZIKV transmission on MHS beneficiaries. •	ZIKV spread to nearly 50 countries and territories within a 17-month period. •	Among affected service members, the Army reported the most Zika cases. •	There have been 156 confirmed cases of Zika in MHS beneficiaries. •	A majority of cases reported exposure in Puerto Rico (n=91, 58.3%). Geographic regions of potential exposure to Zika cases in MHS beneficiaries between 01 Jan – 30 Nov 2016 included: •	Puerto Rico ( 91 cases) •	Caribbean ( 41 cases) •	Central America & Mexico (15 cases) •	South America (6 cases) •	Asia ( 3 cases) •	Unknown (3) •	U.S. Florida (1 case) Cases in Service Members Between 01 Jan – 30 Nov 2016 were: •	Army (48 cases) •	Coast Guard (29 cases) •	Air Force (16 cases) •	Navy (10 cases) •	Marine Corps (7 cases) Although most ZIKV infections are asymptomatic or have a relatively mild illness, the gravity of pregnancy and neurologic issues linked to infection remains a significant impetus for the continued surveillance of ZIKV in the MHS population. For more Zika surveillance and information on signs and symptoms, visit Health.mil/AFHSB

The introduction and rapid spread of the Zika virus (ZIKV), a Flavivrus of the Flaviviridae family, across the Western Hemisphere have posed a risk of infection to Military Health System (MHS) beneficiaries.

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Armed Forces Health Surveillance Branch | Zika Virus

DoD News In Focus – Combating Malaria

Video
3/21/2017
DoD News In Focus – Combating Malaria

Inside the Washington, D.C., beltway, scientists and researchers at the Naval Medical Research Center work diligently to combat malaria for the American war fighter and the global population.

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Malaria vaccine candidate proves effective in Navy Medicine clinical trial

Article
2/3/2017
Navy Petty Officer 1st Class James Bowes, Camp Lemonnier's expeditionary medical facility senior preventive-medicine technician, places mosquitoes on a dish to view under a microscope at Camp Lemonnier, Djibouti. Bowes, a member of the camp's mosquito-control program, routinely analyzes mosquitoes to help determine the risk of mosquito-borne diseases like malaria. (U.S. Navy photo by Petty Officer 1st Class Tom Ouellette)

An effective malaria vaccine would be an ideal tool to prevent malaria in deployed military personnel

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Rift Valley Fever Virus Ecology

Infographic
12/5/2016
This infographic describes Rift Valley Fever (RVF) virus ecology and how RVF infects livestock and humans.   •	First the enzootic cycle begins. It is maintained via transfer from parent mosquito to offspring. This is a local, low-level transfer of disease to livestock and happens during periods of average rainfall. •	Next, high rainfall and flooding enable Aedes mosquito breeding environments to flourish. This is followed by epizootic outbreaks, which cause abortion storms in animals, with > 90% mortality in newborns and 10-20% mortality in adults. Secondary vectors, including other mosquito genera such as Culex, can pass on the virus to humans and animals.  Spillover to humans includes exposure to blood and tissue of infected livestock and occurs during slaughter or birthing activities. Humans can also be infected with RVF via bites of infected mosquitos.

This infographic describes Rift Valley Fever (RVF) virus ecology and how RVF infects livestock and humans.

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Armed Forces Health Surveillance Branch | Mosquito-Borne Illnesses

Human trials begin for Army-developed Zika vaccine

Article
11/15/2016
The Zika virus is transmitted to people primarily through the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito – Aedes aegypti, shown here, and Aedes albopictus. The same mosquitoes spread dengue and chikungunya viruses. Mosquitoes become infected when they feed on a person already infected with the virus. Infected mosquitoes can then spread the virus to other people through bites. (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention photo by James Gathany)

A Zika vaccine clinical trial began recently at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research officials announced

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Mosquito Control & Bite Prevention: Educational Flipbook

Publication
9/23/2016

Mosquitoes can spread viruses like Zika, chikungunya, and dengue.This flipbook gives basic information about mosquito control activities and how to protect from mosquito bites. Mosquito control approaches that incorporate community education, and mosquito surveillance and control are often called “integrated vector control.” A vector is an insect, like a mosquito, that can spread viruses.

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Mosquito-Borne Illnesses | Preventing Mosquito-Borne Illnesses | Chikungunya | Dengue | Malaria | West Nile | Zika Virus

Revised Recommendations for Reducing the Risk of Zika Virus Transmission by Blood and Blood Components

Policy

The U.S. Food and Drug Admnistration is issuing this guidance for blood establishments that collect Whole Blood and blood components for immediate implementation in accordance with 21 CFR 10.115(g)(2).

  • Identification #: N/A
  • Date: 9/23/2016
  • Type: Guidelines
  • Topics: Zika Virus

OPM Guidance on Workplace Flexibilities and Authorities for Dealing with the Zika Virus

Policy

The U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) reminds agencies that a wide range of human resources (HR) policies and flexibilities are available to assist employees and agencies in dealing with the Zika virus. This guidance provides information regarding the leave and other workplace flexibilities and authorities available for these purposes.

  • Identification #: N/A
  • Date: 9/23/2016
  • Type: Guidelines
  • Topics: Zika Virus
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