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Mosquito-Borne Illnesses

Mosquito-borne illness is a significant public health concern, both to the Department of Defense (DoD) and to the broader national and international public health community. Here, we provide a collection of resources to assist in education and risk communication for partners and stakeholders on issues relating to mosquito control and prevention, as well as the prevention of mosquito-borne infectious disease.

mosquito-borne illness campaign graphic

To prevent an outbeak of any mosquito-borne illness, it's important to control the mosquito population and protect yourself from mosquito bites.

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Army invention traps things that go buzz in the day

Article
7/30/2018
Aedes albopictus, is one type of mosquito responsible for spreading dengue and yellow fevers as well as the Zika and chikungunya viruses, are common throughout eastern and southern portions of the United States, South America, and other parts of the world. (Courtesy photo)

Device targets mosquitoes that transmit diseases

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Bug Week 2018: What's the Buzz All About? | Mosquito-Borne Illnesses | Preventing Mosquito-Borne Illnesses

Mosquitoes 2018

Video
7/30/2018
Mosquitoes 2018

MHS observes Bug Week! Learn more about how to stay safe from mosquitoes and the diseases they carry by watching this video.

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Summer Safety 2018 Mosquito Safety

Infographic
6/20/2018
This infographic provides information on ways to protect yourself from harmful mosquito bites.

This infographic provides information on ways to protect yourself from harmful mosquito bites.

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Summer Safety | Mosquito-Borne Illnesses | Preventing Mosquito-Borne Illnesses

Surveillance for Vector-Borne Diseases, Active and Reserve Component Service Members, U.S. Armed Forces, 2010 – 2016

Infographic
2/14/2018
Within the U.S. Armed Forces considerable effort has been applied to the prevention and treatment of vector-borne diseases. A key component of that effort has been the surveillance of vector-borne diseases to inform the steps needed to identify where and when threats exist and to evaluate the impact of preventive measures. This report summarizes available health records information about the occurrence of vector-borne infectious diseases among members of the U.S. Armed Forces, during a recent 7-year surveillance period. For the 7-surveillance period, there were 1,436 confirmed cases of vector-borne diseases, 536 possible cases, and 8,667 suspected cases among service members of the active and reserve components. •	“Confirmed” case = confirmed reportable medical event. •	“Possible” case = hospitalization with a diagnosis for a vector-borne disease. •	“Suspected” case = either a non-confirmed reportable medical event or an outpatient medical encounter with a diagnosis of a vector-borne disease. Lyme disease (n=721) and malaria (n=346) were the most common diagnoses among confirmed and possible cases. •	In 2015, the annual numbers of confirmed case of Lyme disease were the fewest reported during the surveillance period. •	Diagnoses of Chikungunya (CHIK) and Zika (ZIKV) were elevated in the years following their respective entries into the Western Hemisphere: CHIK (2014 and 2015); ZIKV (2016). The available data reinforce the need for continued emphasis on the multidisciplinary preventive measures necessary to counter the ever-present threat of vector-borne disease. Access the full report in the February 2018 MSMR (Vol. 25, No. 2). Go to www.Health.mil/MSMR  Background graphic shows service member in the field and insects which spread vector borne diseases.

This infographic summarizes available health records information about the occurrence of vector-borne infectious diseases among members of the U.S. Armed Forces, during a recent 7-year surveillance period (2010 – 2016).

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Health Readiness | Armed Forces Health Surveillance Branch | Epidemiology and Analysis | Medical Surveillance Monthly Report | Preventing Mosquito-Borne Illnesses | Chikungunya | Malaria | Zika Virus

Malaria U.S. Armed Forces, 2017

Infographic
2/14/2018
Since 1999, the Medical Surveillance Monthly Report (MSMR) has published periodic updates on the incidence of malaria among U.S. service members. Malaria infection remains an important health threat to U.S. service members, who are located in endemic areas because of long-term duty assignments, participation in shorter-term contingency operations, or personal travel. This update for 2017 describes the epidemiologic patterns of malaria incidence in active and reserve component service members of the U.S. Armed Forces. Findings •	A total of 32 service members were diagnosed with or reported to have malaria, which is the lowest number of cases in any given year during the 10-year surveillance period. •	Health records documented the performance of laboratory tests for malaria for 22 of the cases. The tests for 17 of the 22 were positive for malaria ( stick figure graphic visually depicts this information). •	In 2017, 75.0% (24 of 32) of malaria cases among U.S. service members were diagnosed during May – October (calendar graphic showing the months visually). •	Of the 32 malaria cases in 2017, more than 1/3 of the infections were considered to have been acquired in Africa. Two bar charts display the following information: •	Bar chart 1: Numbers of malaria cases by Plasmodium species and calendar year of diagnosis/report, active and reserve components, U.S. Armed Forces, 2008 – 2017  •	Bar chart 2: Annual numbers of cases of malaria associated with specific locations of acquisition, active and reserve components, U.S. Armed Forces, 2008 – 2017  The majority of U.S. military members diagnosed with malaria in 2017 were: •	Male (96.9%) •	Active component (81.3%) •	In the Army (75.0%) •	In their 20’s (56.3%) Access the full report in the February 2018 MSMR (Vol. 25 No. 2). Go to www.Health.mil/MSMR  Picture of a mosquito displays on the graphic.

This update for 2017 describes the epidemiologic patterns of malaria incidence in active and reserve component service members of the U.S. Armed Forces.

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Joint efforts in search of a cure for tropical diseases

Article
1/11/2018
Dr. Gissella Vasquez, deputy director of the Entomology Department at the U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit No. 6, inspects a vector trap at Soto Cano Air Base, Honduras. The Joint Task Force-Bravo Medical Element, NAMRU- 6 and the Uniformed Service University of the Health Sciences partnered for an ongoing tropical disease study, testing live samples and collecting vectors that could be potential carriers for diseases. (U.S. Army photo by Maria Pinel)

Malaria. Dengue. Zika.

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Army-developed Zika vaccine induces strong immune response in early trials

Article
12/8/2017
A team of U.S. Army researchers at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research are developing a Zika vaccine that has induced a strong immune response in early trials. (Photo Credit: U.S. Army photo by Jonathan Thompson, WRAIR)

A team of U.S. Army researchers at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research are developing a Zika vaccine

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Navy, international entomologists collaborate to fight malaria

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11/13/2017
Navy Lt. Cmdr. Ian Sutherland, technical director for the Navy Entomology Center of Excellence, sprays insecticide at the Centro De Atención Mis Años Dorados, a local nursing home, during Southern Partnership Station 17. (U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class Brittney Cannady)

The Navy Entomology Center of Excellence has taken an important role in reducing malaria

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Air Force launches aerial spray mission against mosquitoes

Article
9/25/2017
Air Force Reserve Tech. Sgt. Ken Hesser, a crew chief with the 910th Maintenance Group, Youngstown Air Reserve Station, Ohio, marshals a C-130H Hercules aircraft as the aircrew taxis the plane for takeoff on the flightline of the Kelly Field Annex. Hesser is among more than 90 Reserve Citizen Airmen supporting the 910th’s mosquito control aerial spray operations over areas of eastern Texas devastated by Hurricane Harvey. The 910th Airlift Wing operates the Department of Defense’s only aerial spray capability to control pest insect populations, eliminate undesired and invasive vegetation and disperse oil spills in large bodies of water. Due to large amounts of standing, polluted water, the numbers of pest insects are increasing significantly. (U.S. Air Force photo by Master Sgt. Bob Barko Jr.)

The Air Force Reserve’s 910th Airlift Wing continues aerial spray mosquito control application in areas of eastern Texas to assist Hurricane Harvey recovery efforts

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DoD vaccine research saves military, civilian lives

Article
6/2/2017
Mosquitoes lie in a petri dish for testing. Personnel at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, a Defense Department biomedical facility in Silver Spring, Maryland, are researching and developing vaccines that can save military and civilian lives. (U.S. Air Force photo)

Personnel at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research are researching and developing vaccines that can save military and civilian lives

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Race for the Zika Vaccine: The Army Advantage

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4/28/2017
Race for the Zika Vaccine: The Army Advantage

When the Zika virus emerged as a global threat, the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research drew on its deep expertise in protecting Soldiers against malaria, Ebola and other flaviviruses, to develop the ZPIV vaccine in just six months. Watch to learn about the unique capabilities vaccinologists in the U.S. Army brought to the fight against Zika.

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Malaria U.S. Armed Forces 2016

Infographic
4/17/2017
Malaria is an important health threat to U.S. service members located in endemic areas for: •	Long-term duty assignments •	Participation in short-term contingency operations •	Personal travel In 2016, 57 service members were diagnosed with or reported to have malaria from 25 different medical facilities in the U.S., Afghanistan, Germany, Korea, Djibouti, and Oman. In 2011, 124 service members were affected. Malaria Pie chart P. falciparum (45.6%; n=26) Plasmodium vivax (26.3%; n=15) highest since 2012 P. malariae and P. ovale (3.5%; n=2) Unspecified agents (24.6%; n=14) The relatively low numbers of cases during 2012-2016 mainly reflect a decrease in cases acquired in Afghanistan – a reduction due largely to the withdrawal of U.S. forces from that country. Providers of medical care to military members should be knowledgeable of, and vigilant for, clinical manifestations of malaria outside of endemic areas. To learn more about how malaria impacts U.S. Armed Forces visit Health.mil/AFHSB.

In 2016, 57 service members were diagnosed with or reported to have malaria from 25 different medical facilities in the U.S., Afghanistan, Germany, Korea, Djibouti, and Oman.

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Zika Virus Infections in Military Health System Beneficiaries

Infographic
4/17/2017
The introduction and rapid spread of the Zika virus (ZIKV), a Flavivrus of the Flaviviridae family, across the Western Hemisphere have posed a risk of infection to Military Health System (MHS) beneficiaries. This report documents: •	The impact of ZIKV transmission on MHS beneficiaries. •	ZIKV spread to nearly 50 countries and territories within a 17-month period. •	Among affected service members, the Army reported the most Zika cases. •	There have been 156 confirmed cases of Zika in MHS beneficiaries. •	A majority of cases reported exposure in Puerto Rico (n=91, 58.3%). Geographic regions of potential exposure to Zika cases in MHS beneficiaries between 01 Jan – 30 Nov 2016 included: •	Puerto Rico ( 91 cases) •	Caribbean ( 41 cases) •	Central America & Mexico (15 cases) •	South America (6 cases) •	Asia ( 3 cases) •	Unknown (3) •	U.S. Florida (1 case) Cases in Service Members Between 01 Jan – 30 Nov 2016 were: •	Army (48 cases) •	Coast Guard (29 cases) •	Air Force (16 cases) •	Navy (10 cases) •	Marine Corps (7 cases) Although most ZIKV infections are asymptomatic or have a relatively mild illness, the gravity of pregnancy and neurologic issues linked to infection remains a significant impetus for the continued surveillance of ZIKV in the MHS population. For more Zika surveillance and information on signs and symptoms, visit Health.mil/AFHSB

The introduction and rapid spread of the Zika virus (ZIKV), a Flavivrus of the Flaviviridae family, across the Western Hemisphere have posed a risk of infection to Military Health System (MHS) beneficiaries.

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DoD News In Focus – Combating Malaria

Video
3/21/2017
DoD News In Focus – Combating Malaria

Inside the Washington, D.C., beltway, scientists and researchers at the Naval Medical Research Center work diligently to combat malaria for the American war fighter and the global population.

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Malaria vaccine candidate proves effective in Navy Medicine clinical trial

Article
2/3/2017
Navy Petty Officer 1st Class James Bowes, Camp Lemonnier's expeditionary medical facility senior preventive-medicine technician, places mosquitoes on a dish to view under a microscope at Camp Lemonnier, Djibouti. Bowes, a member of the camp's mosquito-control program, routinely analyzes mosquitoes to help determine the risk of mosquito-borne diseases like malaria. (U.S. Navy photo by Petty Officer 1st Class Tom Ouellette)

An effective malaria vaccine would be an ideal tool to prevent malaria in deployed military personnel

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