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Studies

On this page you can find various studies developed by Military Health System. Please scroll down or use the search box to find specific studies.

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Long-term outcomes after moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury among military veterans: Successes and challenges.

Study

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To assess long-term outcomes after traumatic brain injury (TBI) among veterans and service members. SETTING: Regional Veterans Affairs medical centre. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred and eighteen veterans and military personnel, aged 23-70 years (median = 35 years), 90% male, had moderate-to-severe TBI (82% in coma > 1 day, 85% amnesic > 7 days), followed by acute interdisciplinary rehabilitation 5-16 years ago (median = 8 years). DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of live interviews conducted via telephone. MAIN MEASURES: TBI follow-up interview (occupational, social, cognitive, neurologic and psychiatric ratings), Community Integration Questionnaire, Disability Rating Scale (four indices of independent function) and Satisfaction with Life Scale. RESULTS: At follow-up, 52% of participants were working or attending school; 34% ended or began marriages after TBI, but the overall proportion married changed little. Finally, 22% were still moderately-to-severely disabled. However, 62% of participants judged themselves to be as satisfied or more satisfied with life than before injury. Injury severity, especially post-traumatic amnesia, was correlated with poorer outcomes in all functional domains. CONCLUSIONS: After moderate-severe TBI, most veterans assume productive roles and are satisfied with life. However, widespread difficulties and functional limitations persist. These findings suggest that veteran and military healthcare systems should continue periodic, comprehensive follow-up evaluations long after moderate-to-severe TBI.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source:
  • Release Date/Publication: February 01, 2016
  • Citation: Schulz-Heik RJ, Poole JH, Dahdah MN, Sullivan C, Date ES, Salerno RM, Schwab K, Harris O. Long-term outcomes after moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury among military veterans: Successes and challenges. Brain Inj. 2016 Feb 6:1-9

Costs and consequences: Hepatitis C seroprevalence in the military and its impact on potential screening strategies.

Study

Abstract

Knowledge of the contemporary epidemiology of hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection among military personnel can inform potential Department of Defense screening policy. HCV infection status at the time of accession and following deployment was determined by evaluating reposed serum from 10,000 service members recently deployed to combat operations in Iraq and Afghanistan in the period 2007-2010. A cost model was developed from the perspective of the Department of Defense for a military applicant screening program. Return on investment was based on comparison between screening program costs and potential treatment costs avoided. The prevalence of HCV antibody-positive and chronic HCV infection at accession among younger recently deployed military personnel born after 1965 was 0.98/1000 (95% confidence interval 0.45-1.85) and 0.43/1000 (95% confidence interval 0.12-1.11), respectively. Among these, service-related incidence was low; 64% of infections were present at the time of accession. With no screening, the cost to the Department of Defense of treating the estimated 93 cases of chronic HCV cases from a single year's accession cohort was $9.3 million. Screening with the HCV antibody test followed by the nucleic acid test for confirmation yielded a net annual savings and a $3.1 million dollar advantage over not screening. CONCLUSIONS: Applicant screening will reduce chronic HCV infection in the force, result in a small system costs savings, and decrease the threat of transfusion-transmitted HCV infection in the battlefield blood supply and may lead to earlier diagnosis and linkage to care; initiation of an applicant screening program will require ongoing evaluation that considers changes in the treatment cost and practice landscape, screening options, and the epidemiology of HCV in the applicant/accession and overall force populations. (Hepatology 2016;63:398-407).

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source:
  • Release Date/Publication: February 01, 2016
  • Citation: Brett-Major DM, Frick KD, Malia JA, Hakre S, Okulicz JF, Beckett CG, et.al., . Costs and consequences: Hepatitis C seroprevalence in the military and its impact on potential screening strategies. Hepatology. 2016 Feb;63(2):398-407.

Frequent binge drinking after combat-acquired traumatic brain injury among active duty military personnel with a past year combat deployment.

Study

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether combat-acquired traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with postdeployment frequent binge drinking among a random sample of active duty military personnel. PARTICIPANTS: Active duty military personnel who returned home within the past year from deployment to a combat theater of operations and completed a survey health assessment (N = 7155). METHODS: Cross-sectional observational study with multivariate analysis of responses to the 2008 Department of Defense Survey of Health Related Behaviors Among Active Duty Military Personnel, an anonymous, random, population-based assessment of the armed forces. MAIN MEASURES: Frequent binge drinking: 5 or more drinks on the same occasion, at least once per week, in the past 30 days. TBI-AC: self-reported altered consciousness only; loss of consciousness (LOC) of less than 1 minute (TBI-LOC <1); and LOC of 1 minute or greater (TBI-LOC 1+) after combat injury event exposure. RESULTS: Of active duty military personnel who had a past year combat deployment, 25.6% were frequent binge drinkers and 13.9% reported experiencing a TBI on the deployment, primarily TBI-AC (7.5%). In regression models adjusting for demographics and positive screen for posttraumatic stress disorder, active duty military personnel with TBI had increased odds of frequent binge drinking compared with those with no injury exposure or without TBI: TBI-AC (adjusted odds ratio, 1.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.18-1.84); TBI-LOC 1+ (adjusted odds ratio, 1.67; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-2.79). CONCLUSIONS: Traumatic brain injury was significantly associated with past month frequent binge drinking after controlling for posttraumatic stress disorder, combat exposure, and other covariates.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Federal government department, agency, or organization, other than the Department of Defense
  • Release Date/Publication: September 01, 2012
  • Citation: Adams RS, Larson MJ, Corrigan JD, Horgan CM, Williams TV. Frequent binge drinking after combat-acquired traumatic brain injury among active duty military personnel with a past year combat deployment. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2012 Sep-Oct;27(5):349-60.
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Last Updated: April 30, 2020

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