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Studies

On this page you can find various studies developed by Military Health System. Please scroll down or use the search box to find specific studies.

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Prevalence and correlates of suicidal behavior among new soldiers in the U.S. Army: results from the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS).

Study

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of suicide among U.S. Army soldiers has risen dramatically in recent years. Prior studies suggest that most soldiers with suicidal behaviors (i.e., ideation, plans, and attempts) had first onsets prior to enlistment. However, those data are based on retrospective self-reports of soldiers later in their Army careers. Unbiased examination of this issue requires investigation of suicidality among new soldiers. METHOD: The New Soldier Study (NSS) of the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS) used fully structured self-administered measures to estimate preenlistment histories of suicide ideation, plans, and attempts among new soldiers reporting for Basic Combat Training in 2011-2012. Survival models examined sociodemographic correlates of each suicidal outcome. RESULTS: Lifetime prevalence estimates of preenlistment suicide ideation, plans, and attempts were 14.1, 2.3, and 1.9%, respectively. Most reported onsets of suicide plans and attempts (73.3-81.5%) occurred within the first year after onset of ideation. Odds of these lifetime suicidal behaviors among new soldiers were positively, but weakly associated with being female, unmarried, religion other than Protestant or Catholic, and a race/ethnicity other than non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, or Hispanic. CONCLUSIONS: Lifetime prevalence estimates of suicidal behaviors among new soldiers are consistent with retrospective reports of preenlistment prevalence obtained from soldiers later in their Army careers. Given that prior suicidal behaviors are among the strongest predictors of later suicides, consideration should be given to developing methods of obtaining valid reports of preenlistment suicidality from new soldiers to facilitate targeting of preventive interventions.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Release Date/Publication: January 01, 2015
  • Citation: Ursano RJ, et al. Prevalence and correlates of suicidal behavior among new soldiers in the U.S. Army: results from the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS). Depress Anxiety. 2015 Jan;32(1):3-12.

Effects of hyperbaric oxygen on symptoms and quality of life among service members with persistent postconcussion symptoms: a randomized clinical trial.

Study

Abstract

IMPORTANCE: Improvement has been anecdotally observed in patients with persistent postconcussion symptoms (PCS) after mild traumatic brain injury following treatment with hyperbaric oxygen (HBO). The effectiveness of HBO as an adjunctive treatment for PCS is unknown to date. OBJECTIVES: To compare the safety of and to estimate the efficacy for symptomatic outcomes from standard PCS care alone, care supplemented with HBO, or a sham procedure. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Multicenter, double-blind, sham-controlled clinical trial of 72 military service members with ongoing symptoms at least 4 months after mild traumatic brain injury enrolled at military hospitals in Colorado, North Carolina, California, and Georgia between April 26, 2011, and August 24, 2012. Assessments occurred before randomization, at the midpoint, and within 1 month after completing the interventions. INTERVENTIONS: Routine PCS care was provided in specialized clinics. In addition, participants were randomized 1:1:1 to 40 HBO sessions administered at 1.5 atmospheres absolute (ATA), 40 sham sessions consisting of room air at 1.2 ATA, or no supplemental chamber procedures. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire (RPQ) served as the primary outcome measure. A change score of at least 2 points on the RPQ-3 subscale (range, 0-12) was defined as clinically significant. Change scores from baseline were calculated for the RPQ-3 and for the total RPQ. Secondary measures included additional patient-reported outcomes and automated neuropsychometric testing. RESULTS: On average, participants had sustained 3 lifetime mild traumatic brain injuries; the most recent occurred 23 months before enrollment. No differences were observed between groups for improvement of at least 2 points on the RPQ-3 subscale (25% in the no intervention group, 52% in the HBO group, and 33% in the sham group; P = .24). Compared with the no intervention group (mean change score, 0.5; 95% CI, -4.8 to 5.8; P = .91), both groups undergoing supplemental chamber procedures showed improvement in symptoms on the RPQ (mean change score, 5.4; 95% CI, -0.5 to 11.3; P = .008 in the HBO group and 7.0; 95% CI, 1.0-12.9; P = .02 in the sham group). No difference between the HBO group and the sham group was observed (P = .70). Chamber sessions were well tolerated. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Among service members with persistent PCS, HBO showed no benefits over sham compressions. Both intervention groups demonstrated improved outcomes compared with PCS care alone. This finding suggests that the observed improvements were not oxygen mediated but may reflect nonspecific improvements related to placebo effects.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source:
  • Release Date/Publication: January 01, 2015
  • Citation: Miller RS et al., Effects of hyperbaric oxygen on symptoms and quality of life among service members with persistent postconcussion symptoms: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Intern Med. 2015 Jan;175(1):43-52.

Colon cancer lymph node evaluation among military health system beneficiaries: an analysis by race/ethnicity.

Study

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The number of lymph nodes examined during colon cancer surgery falls below nationally recommended guidelines in the general population, with Blacks and Hispanics less likely to have adequate nodal evaluation in comparison to Whites. The Department of Defense's (DoD) Military Health System (MHS) provides equal access to medical care for its beneficiaries, regardless of racial/ethnic background. This study aimed to investigate whether racial/ethnic treatment differences exist in the MHS, an equal-access medical care system. METHODS: Linked data from the DoD cancer registry and administrative claims databases were used and included 2,155 colon cancer cases. Multivariate logistic regression assessed the association between race/ethnicity and the number of lymph nodes examined (<12 and ≥12) overall and for stratified analyses. RESULTS: No overall racial/ethnic differences in the number of lymph nodes examined was identified. Further stratified analyses yielded similar results, except potential racial/ethnic differences were found among persons with poorly differentiated tumors, where non-Hispanic Blacks tended to be less likely to have ≥12 lymph nodes dissected (odds ratio 0.34; 95 % confidence interval 0.14-0.80; p = 0.01) compared with non-Hispanic Whites. CONCLUSION: Racial/ethnic disparities in the number of lymph nodes evaluated among patients with colon cancer were not apparent in an equal-access healthcare system. However, among poorly differentiated tumors there might be racial/ethnic differences in nodal yield, suggesting the possible effects of factors other than access to healthcare.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Walter Reed National Military Medical Center
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Release Date/Publication: January 01, 2015
  • Citation: Gill AA, Zahm SH, Shriver CD, Stojadinovic A, McGlynn KA, Zhu K. Colon cancer lymph node evaluation among military health system beneficiaries: an analysis by race/ethnicity. Ann Surg Oncol. 2015 Jan;22(1):195-202

Healthcare-associated pneumonia among U.S. combat casualties, 2009 to 2010.

Study

Abstract

Although there is literature evaluating infectious complications associated with combat-related injuries from Iraq and Afghanistan, none have evaluated pneumonia specifically. Therefore, we assessed a series of pneumonia cases among wounded military personnel admitted to Landstuhl Regional Medical Center, and then evacuated further to participating U.S. military hospitals. Of the 423 casualties evacuated to the United States, 36 developed pneumonia (8.5%) and 30 of these (83.3%) were ventilator-associated. Restricting to 162 subjects admitted to intensive care, 30 patients had pneumonia (18.5%). The median Injury Severity Score was higher among subjects with pneumonia (23.0 vs. 6.0; p < 0.01). There were 61 first-isolate respiratory specimens recovered from 31 pneumonia subjects, of which 56.1% were gram-negative, 18.2% were gram-positive, and 18.2% were fungal. Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were most commonly recovered (10.6%, and 9.1%, respectively). Thirteen bacterial isolates (26.5%) were multidrug-resistant. Outcome data were available for 32 patients, of which 26 resolved their infection without progression, 5 resolved after initial progression, and 1 died. Overall, combat-injured casualties suffer a relatively high rate of pneumonia, particularly those requiring mechanical ventilation. Although gram-negative pathogens were common, S. aureus was most frequently isolated. Continued focus on pneumonia prevention strategies is necessary for improving combat care. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Army
  • Sponsoring Office: Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Agency, office or organization under authority of the Sec Def (not affiliated to Army, Navy, or Air Force)
  • Release Date/Publication: January 01, 2015
  • Citation: Yun HC, et al. Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program Trauma Infectious Disease Outcomes Study Group. Healthcare-associated pneumonia among U.S. combat casualties, 2009 to 2010. Mil Med. 2015 Jan;180(1):104-10.

Epidemiologic, clinical, and virologic characteristics of human rhinovirus infection among otherwise healthy children and adults: rhinovirus among adults and children.

Study

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Human rhinovirus (HRV) is a major cause of influenza-like illness (ILI) in adults and children. Differences in disease severity by HRV species have been described among hospitalized patients with underlying illness. Less is known about the clinical and virologic characteristics of HRV infection among otherwise healthy populations, particularly adults. OBJECTIVES: To characterize molecular epidemiology of HRV and association between HRV species and clinical presentation and viral shedding. STUDY DESIGN: Observational, prospective, facility-based study of ILI was conducted from February 2010 to April 2012. Collection of nasopharyngeal specimens, patient symptoms, and clinical information occurred on days 0, 3, 7, and 28. Patients recorded symptom severity daily for the first 7 days of illness in a symptom diary. HRV was identified by RT-PCR and genotyped for species determination. Cases who were co-infected with other viral respiratory pathogens were excluded from the analysis. We evaluated the associations between HRV species, clinical severity, and patterns of viral shedding. RESULTS: Eighty-four HRV cases were identified and their isolates genotyped. Of these, 62 (74%) were >18 years. Fifty-four were HRV-A, 11HRV-B, and 19HRV-C. HRV-C infection was more common among children than adults (59% vs. 10%, P<0.001). Among adults, HRV-A was associated with higher severity of upper respiratory symptoms compared to HRV-B (P=0.02), but no such association was found in children. In addition, adults shed HRV-A significantly longer than HRV-C (P trend=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Among otherwise healthy adults with HRV infection, we observed species-specific differences in respiratory symptom severity and duration of viral shedding.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source:
  • Release Date/Publication: January 01, 2015
  • Citation: Chen WJ, et. al., Epidemiologic, clinical, and virologic characteristics of human rhinovirus infection among otherwise healthy children and adults: rhinovirus among adults and children. J Clin Virol. 2015 Mar;64:74-82.

Relation of repeated low-level blast exposure with symptomology similar to concussion.

Study

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To investigate anecdotal reports suggesting that repeated exposure to low-level explosive blast has myriad health impacts, including an array of neurological effects. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 184 anonymous survey respondents from military and nonmilitary law enforcement populations (135 exposed to occupational blast and 49 controls). DESIGN: Survey of self-reported history of occupational exposure to repeated low-level blast (breaching blast) and symptomology similar to concussion. RESULTS: Findings suggest that number and severity of symptoms increase with history of chronic blast exposure (F = 18.26, P < .001) and that symptoms can interfere with daily activity (t = 2.60, P = .010). CONCLUSION: Given the prevalence of repeated exposure to blast among some military and civilian law enforcement occupations, the results of this survey study support a role for blast surveillance programs as well as continued research on health impacts of low-level repeated blast exposure.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Walter Reed National Military Medical Center
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source:
  • Release Date/Publication: January 01, 2015
  • Citation: Carr W, Polejaeva E, Grome A, Crandall B, LaValle C, Eonta SE, Young LA. Relation of repeated low-level blast exposure with symptomology similar to concussion. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2015 Jan-Feb;30(1):47-55.

Factor analysis of persistent postconcussive symptoms within a military sample with blast exposure.

Study

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the factor structure of persistent postconcussive syndrome symptoms in a blast-exposed military sample and validate factors against objective and symptom measures. SETTING: Veterans Affairs medical center and military bases. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred eighty-one service members and veterans with at least 1 significant exposure to blast during deployment within the 2 years prior to study enrollment. DESIGN: Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses of the Rivermead Postconcussion Questionnaire. MAIN MEASURES: Rivermead Postconcussion Questionnaire, PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder) Symptom Checklist-Civilian, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale, Sensory Organization Test, Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test, California Verbal Learning Test, and Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System subtests. RESULTS: The 3-factor structure of persistent postconcussive syndrome was not confirmed. A 4-factor structure was extracted, and factors were interpreted as reflecting emotional, cognitive, visual, and vestibular functions. All factors were associated with scores on psychological symptom inventories; visual and vestibular factors were also associated with balance performance. There was no significant association between the cognitive factor and neuropsychological performance or between a history of mild traumatic brain injury and factor scores. CONCLUSION: Persistent postconcussive symptoms observed months after blast exposure seem to be related to 4 distinct forms of distress, but not to mild traumatic brain injury per se, with vestibular and visual factors possibly related to injury of sensory organs by blast.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Agency, office or organization under authority of the Sec Def (not affiliated to Army, Navy, or Air Force)
  • Release Date/Publication: January 01, 2015
  • Citation: Franke LM, Czarnota JN, Ketchum JM, Walker WC. Factor analysis of persistent postconcussive symptoms within a military sample with blast exposure. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2015 Jan-Feb;30(1):

Tuberculosis contact investigation in a military health care setting: case report and evidence review.

Study

Abstract

Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global threat to the U.S. armed forces. A single individual with TB disease exerts an immediate and disruptive impact upon patients' lives, military operations, and daily functioning at military treatment facilities. Medical personnel in operational or limited-resource settings are sometimes challenged to perform a TB outbreak investigation with minimal specialized training or limited logistic assistance. This article presents a case of a patient with TB disease presenting to a large military treatment facility and outlines the current, evidence-based recommendations for performing a TB outbreak investigation.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Release Date/Publication: January 01, 2015
  • Citation: Moore AC, Clausen SS, Johnson LA. Tuberculosis contact investigation in a military health care setting: case report and evidence review. Mil Med. 2015 Jan;180(1):38-44

Transfusion for shock in US military war casualties with and without tourniquet use.

Study

Abstract

We assess whether emergency tourniquet use for transfused war casualties admitted to military hospitals is associated with survival.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source:
  • Release Date/Publication: March 01, 2015
  • Citation: Kragh JF Jr, Nam JJ, Berry KA, Mase VJ Jr, Aden JK 3rd, Walters TJ, Dubick MA, Baer DG, Wade CE, Blackbourne LH. Transfusion for shock in US military war casualties with and without tourniquet use. Ann Emerg Med. 2015 Mar;65(3):290-6.

Tuberculosis as a force health protection threat to the United States military.

Study

Abstract

Tuberculosis (TB) is a communicable disease that poses a threat to force health protection to the U.S. military. The rate of TB disease in the military is low; however, there are unique challenges for its control in this setting. As a low-risk population, TB testing in the U.S. military can be scaled back from the universal testing approach used previously. Reactivation of latent TB infection (LTBI) present at accession into service is the most important factor leading to TB disease; therefore, its diagnosis and treatment among recruits should be given a high priority. Deployment and overseas military service is an uncommon but important source of TB infection, and rigorous surveillance should be ensured. Case management of TB disease and LTBI can be improved by the use of cohort reviews at the service and installation levels and case finding and delays in the diagnosis of TB disease can be improved by education of providers, as well as increased use of molecular diagnostic tests. Program outcomes can be improved by making LTBI treatment compulsory, offering shorter treatment regimens, and increasing accountability through oversight and evaluation. The diagnosis of LTBI can be improved by implementing targeted testing in all settings and reducing confirmatory interferon-gamma release assay testing.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Release Date/Publication: March 01, 2015
  • Citation: Sanchez JL, Sanchez JL, Cooper MJ, Hiser MJ, Mancuso JD. Tuberculosis as a force health protection threat to the United States military. Mil Med. 2015 Mar;180(3):276-84.

No Significant Acute and Subacute Differences between Blast and Blunt Concussions across Multiple Neurocognitive Measures and Symptoms in Deployed Soldiers.

Study

Abstract

Seventy-one deployed U.S. Army soldiers who presented for concussion care due to either blast or blunt mechanisms within 72 h of injury were assessed using the Military Acute Concussion Evaluation, the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics (ANAM), traditional neuropsychological tests, and health status questionnaires. Follow-up ANAM testing was performed 10 d after initial testing (±5 d). Twenty-one soldiers were excluded: two for poor effort and 19 who had combined blast/blunt injuries. Of the remaining 50 male participants, 34 had blast injuries and 16 had blunt injuries. There were no statistically significant differences between blast injury and blunt injury participants in demographic, physical, or psychological health factors, concussive symptoms, or automated and traditional neurocognitive testing scores within 72 h post-injury. In addition, follow-up ANAM scores up to 15 d post-injury were not significantly different (available on 21 blast-injured and 13 blunt-injured subjects). Pre-injury baseline ANAM scores were compared where available, and revealed no statistically significant differences between 22 blast injury and eight blunt injury participants. These findings suggest there are no significant differences between mechanisms of injury during both the acute and subacute periods in neurobehavioral concussion sequelae while deployed in a combat environment. The current study supports the use of sports/mechanical concussion models for early concussion management in the deployed setting and exploration of variability in potential long-term outcomes.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Walter Reed National Military Medical Center
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Agency, office or organization under authority of the Sec Def (not affiliated to Army, Navy, or Air Force)
  • Release Date/Publication: August 01, 2015
  • Citation: Dretsch MN, et. al.,. No Significant Acute and Subacute Differences between Blast and Blunt Concussions across Multiple Neurocognitive Measures and Symptoms in Deployed Soldiers. J Neurotrauma. 2015 Aug 15;32(16):1217-22.

Neuraminidase inhibitor therapy in a military population.

Study

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Although neuraminidase inhibitors (NI) are the mainstay of treatment for influenza infection, prescribing practice for these agents is not well described. Additionally, benefit is contested. OBJECTIVES: We examined provider prescriptions of NI during the 2009 pandemic and post-pandemic periods. We also evaluated the effectiveness of NI in reducing severity of influenza infection. STUDY DESIGN: Data on NI prescription and severity of influenza infection were compiled in healthy pediatric and adult beneficiaries enrolled in a prospective study of influenza like illness conducted at five military medical centers over five years. Subjects underwent nasal swabs to determine viral etiology of their infection. Demographic, medication and severity data were collected. Subjects with positive influenza were included. RESULTS: Two hundred sixty three subjects were influenza positive [38% [H1N1] pdm09, 38.4% H3N2, and 20.5% B); 23.9% were treated with NI. NI were initiated within 48h in 63% of treated subjects. Although NI use increased over the five years of the study, early use declined. Most measures for severity of illness were not significantly reduced with NI; adults treated within 48h had only a modest reduction in duration and severity of some of their symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: NI use in our population is increasing, but early use is not. NI use resulted in no reduction in complications of illness. Resolution of symptoms and reduction in severity of some symptoms were slightly better in adults who were treated early. These modest benefits do not support routine treatment with NI in otherwise healthy individuals with influenza.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Agency, office or organization under authority of the Sec Def (not affiliated to Army, Navy, or Air Force)
  • Release Date/Publication: June 01, 2015
  • Citation: Fairchok MP, Chen WJ, Arnold JC, Schofield C, Danaher PJ, McDonough EA, Ottolini M, Mor D, Ridore M, Burgess TH, Millar EV. Neuraminidase inhibitor therapy in a military population. J Clin Virol. 2015 Jun;67:17-22.

Results of a pilot screening programme for genital and extragenital gonococcal and chlamydial infections in a military population following the repeal of 'Don't Ask, Don't Tell'.

Study

Abstract

No abstract available

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Walter Reed National Military Medical Center
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Release Date/Publication: June 01, 2015
  • Citation: Lee T, Ganesan A. Results of a pilot screening programme for genital and extragenital gonococcal and chlamydial infections in a military population following the repeal of 'Don't Ask, Don't Tell'. Sex Transm Infect. 2015 Jun;91(4):233.

Urinary Tract Infections in Active Component U.S. Armed Forces Women Before and After Routine Screening Pap Examination.

Study

Abstract

It has been suggested that Pap tests, when used as surrogate markers for routine pelvic examinations in asymptomatic women, may be associated with an increased short-term risk of urinary tract infections (UTIs). This retrospective cohort study used Defense Medical Surveillance System (DMSS) data from 2007 through 2013 to compare the incidence of UTIs in active component women before and after receiving a routine screening Pap examination. The pre-Pap (baseline) UTI incidence rate in this cohort was 105.9 per 1,000 person-years (p-yrs) compared to 129.8 per 1,000 p-yrs post-Pap; the rate ratio was 1.23 (95% CI: 1.18-1.27). The adjusted relative risk of UTI post-Pap was 1.14 (95% CI: 1.10-1.18) and the adjusted percentage of UTIs attributable to a Pap test in the post-exposure period was 12.2% (95% CI: 9.1-15.2). Routine Pap tests, when used as a surrogate marker for pelvic examination, may be a modifiable risk factor for UTI in active component U.S. military women.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Release Date/Publication: June 01, 2015
  • Citation: Rossi C, Hunt DJ, Clark LL, Rohrbeck P. Urinary Tract Infections in Active Component U.S. Armed Forces Women Before and After Routine Screening Pap Examination. MSMR. 2015 Jun;22(6):13-9.

The potential utility of urinary biomarkers for risk prediction in combat casualties: a prospective observational cohort study.

Study

Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Traditional risk scoring prediction models for trauma use either anatomically based estimations of injury or presenting vital signs. Markers of organ dysfunction may provide additional prognostic capability to these models. The objective of this study was to evaluate if urinary biomarkers are associated with poor outcomes, including death and the need for renal replacement therapy. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, observational study in United States Military personnel with traumatic injury admitted to the intensive care unit at a combat support hospital in Afghanistan. RESULTS: Eighty nine patients with urine samples drawn at admission to the intensive care unit were studied. Twelve patients subsequently died or needed renal replacement therapy. Median admission levels of urinary cystatin C (CyC), interleukin 18 (IL-18), L-type fatty acid binding protein (LFABP) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) were significantly higher in patients that developed the combined outcome of death or need for renal replacement therapy. Median admission levels of kidney injury molecule-1 were not associated with the combined outcome. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves for the combined outcome were 0.815, 0.682, 0.842 and 0.820 for CyC, IL-18, LFABP and NGAL, respectively. Multivariable regression adjusted for injury severity score, revealed CyC (OR 1.97, 95 % confidence interval 1.26-3.10, p = 0.003), LFABP (OR 1.92, 95 % confidence interval 1.24-2.99, p = 0.004) and NGAL (OR 1.80, 95 % confidence interval 1.21-2.66, p = 0.004) to be significantly associated with the composite outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Urinary biomarker levels at the time of admission are associated with death or need for renal replacement therapy. Larger multicenter studies will be required to determine how urinary biomarkers can best be used in future prediction models.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Air Force
  • Release Date/Publication: June 01, 2015
  • Citation: Stewart IJ, et. al., The potential utility of urinary biomarkers for risk prediction in combat casualties: a prospective observational cohort study. Crit Care. 2015 Jun 16;19:252.
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