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Studies

On this page you can find various studies developed by Military Health System. Please scroll down or use the search box to find specific studies.

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Risk factors for severe outcomes among members of the United States military hospitalized with pneumonia and influenza, 2000-2012.

Study

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The progression from hospitalization for a respiratory infection to requiring substantial supportive therapy is a key stage of the influenza severity pyramid. Respiratory infections are responsible for 300,000-400,000 medical encounters each year among US military personnel, some of which progress to severe acute respiratory infections. METHODS: We obtained data on 11,086 hospitalizations for pneumonia and influenza (P&I) among non-recruit US military service members during the period of 1 January 2000 through 31 December 2012. From these, we identified 512 P&I hospitalizations that progressed to severe episodes using standard case definitions. We evaluated the effect of demographic and occupational characteristics, co-morbid conditions, and history of influenza vaccination on the risk of a hospitalized P&I case becoming a severe case. We also evaluated the risk of a severe outcome and the length of time since influenza vaccination (within 180, 60, and 30 days). RESULTS: The median age of subjects at the time of the P&I episode was 32 years (range, 28-40) and subjects were predominantly male (89.5%). In a univariate analysis, demographic risk factors for a severe episode included service in the US Air Force (RR=1.6 relative to US Army, 95%CI 1.3-2.1), US Coast Guard (RR=2.1, 1.2-3.7) or US Navy (RR=1.4, 1.1-1.8). Being born in the US and recent influenza vaccination (within 180 days of episode) were protective against developing severe disease. Among co-morbid conditions, univariate risk factors for severe disease included chronic renal or liver disease (RR=4.98, 95%CI 4.1-6.1), diseases of the circulatory system (RR=3.1, 95%CI 2.6-3.7), diabetes mellitus (RR=2.3, 95%CI 1.5-3.6), obesity (RR=1.6, 95%CI 1.2-2.1), cancer (RR=1.6, 95%CI 1.3-2.0), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (RR=1.4, 95%CI 1.1-1.7). Although many of the risk factors found to be significant in univariate analysis were no longer significant under a multivariate analysis, receipt of any influenza vaccine within 180 days of episode remained protective (RR=0.81, 95%CI 0.67-0.99), while serving in the US Coast Guard (RR=1.9, 95%CI 1.1-3.4) or US Air Force (RR=1. 5, 95%CI 1.2-2.0), presence of renal or liver disease (RR=3.6, 95%CI 2.9-4.6), and diseases of the circulatory system (RR=2.2, 95%CI 1.8-2.8), remained significantly associated with a higher risk of developing severe disease. CONCLUSIONS: In a large cohort, after adjusting for many possible risk factors, influenza vaccination was protective against severe episodes among P&I hospitalizations. The service-specific (US Coast Guard or US Air Force) increased risk may represent some differences in data (e.g., coding or reporting practices) as opposed to genuine differences in physiological outcome. Our findings suggest that renal and liver disease as well as diseases of the circulatory system may contribute to influenza severity in this population independently of age and other potential comorbidities. These findings provide additional evidence for the prioritization of specific risk groups within the US military for influenza vaccination.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source:
  • Release Date/Publication: December 01, 2015
  • Citation: Van Kerkhove MD, Cooper MJ, Cost AA, Sanchez JL, Riley S. Risk factors for severe outcomes among members of the United States military hospitalized with pneumonia and influenza, 2000-2012. Vaccine. 2015 Dec 8;33(49):6970-6.

Vaccine-associated reduction in symptom severity among patients with influenza A/H3N2 disease.

Study

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The moderate level of protection conferred by influenza vaccines is well-known, but the vaccine's ability to attenuate symptom severity among vaccinated individuals (i.e., vaccine failures) has not been established. METHODS: We enrolled otherwise healthy adults who presented with influenza-like illness (ILI) at five US military hospitals between 2009 and 2014. Influenza was diagnosed and subtyped by PCR. Individual and composite severity scores were compared between those who had vs. had not received the seasonal influenza vaccine >14 days prior to enrollment. RESULTS: A total of 155 cases of influenza (A/H1N1, n=69; A/H3N2, n=66; A/untyped, n=3; B, n=17) were identified, of whom 111 (72%; A/H1N1, n=44; A/H3N2, n=52; A/untyped, n=3; B, n=12) had been vaccinated. Women were significantly less likely to be vaccinated than men (49% vs. 89%; p<0.01). In multivariate analysis, vaccinated individuals were significantly less likely to report a fever >101°F (OR 0.24; 95% CI [0.10, 0.62]) and more likely to report myalgias (OR 3.31; 95% CI [1.22, 8.97]) than vaccinated individuals. Among patients with A/H3N2 infection, upper respiratory and total symptom severity scores were significantly lower for vaccinated patients during the first 2 days of illness, and differences in total symptom severity persisted over 7 days (p<0.05 for all comparisons). Differences across additional symptom categories (lower respiratory and systemic) were also observed throughout 7 days of illness in bivariate analyses. Differences in symptom severity were not observed between vaccinated and unvaccinated participants with A/H1N1 infection. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with A/H3N2 infection, receipt of seasonal influenza vaccine was associated with reduced symptom severity. Patient-centered discussion about the benefits of influenza vaccination should be expanded to include the possibility that the vaccine could attenuate symptoms.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences/Walter Reed National Military Medical Center
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source:
  • Release Date/Publication: December 01, 2015
  • Citation: Deiss RG, Arnold JC, Chen WJ, Echols S, Fairchok MP, Schofield C, et.al., Vaccine-associated reduction in symptom severity among patients with influenza A/H3N2 disease. Vaccine. 2015 Dec 16;33(51):7160-7.

Unintended pregnancy among active-duty women in the United States military, 2011.

Study

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Unintended pregnancy among active-duty women in the United States military, 2011. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional data came from the 2011 Department of Defense Health Related Behaviors Survey of Active Duty Military Personnel; 9038 women provided data on unintended pregnancy. Unintended pregnancy rates were calculated for all women and by available background characteristics, including military branch, marital status (married versus unmarried), pay grade (enlisted versus officer) and deployment in the previous 12months. Multivariable logistic regression testing for associations between unintended pregnancy and subgroups was also performed. RESULTS: The unintended pregnancy rate was 72/1000 women. Married women (odds ratio (OR) 1.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11-1.54) and enlisted women (OR 2.71, 95% CI 1.99-3.69) had higher odds of reporting unintended pregnancy compared to their counterparts, as did women in the Navy (OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.19-1.91) and Marine Corps (OR 2.38, 95% CI 1.92-2.95) compared to women in the Air Force. Unintended pregnancy rates did not differ between women who were deployed in the previous 12months and nondeployed women. Additionally, 10% of women who were deployed for 11-12months in 2011 reported an unintended pregnancy in the previous year, suggesting that their pregnancies occurred during deployment. CONCLUSION: Unintended pregnancy is higher in the military, including during deployment, compared to the general U.S. population (52/1000 women). All branches need to address the issue in a comprehensive manner including evidence-based provision of contraception and education among servicemembers. IMPLICATIONS: Unintended pregnancy is high in the military, including during deployment; further efforts to improve evidence-based provision of contraception and education are needed.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Undetermined
  • Sponsoring Office:
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source:
  • Release Date/Publication: December 01, 2015
  • Citation: Grindlay K, Grossman D. Unintended pregnancy among active-duty women in the United States military, 2011. Contraception. 2015 Dec;92(6):589-95.

Retrospective Analysis of Long-Term Outcomes After Combat Injury: A Hidden Cost of War.

Study

Abstract

BACKGROUND: During the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, 52 087 service members have been wounded in combat. The long-term sequelae of these injuries have not been carefully examined. We sought to determine the relation between markers of injury severity and the subsequent development of hypertension, coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, and chronic kidney disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: Retrospective cohort study of critically injured US military personnel wounded in Iraq or Afghanistan from February 1, 2002 to February 1, 2011. Patients were then followed until January 18, 2013. Chronic disease outcomes were assessed by International Classification of Diseases, 9th edition codes and causes of death were confirmed by autopsy. From 6011 admissions, records were excluded because of missing data or if they were for an individual's second admission. Patients with a disease diagnosis of interest before the injury date were also excluded, yielding a cohort of 3846 subjects for analysis. After adjustment for other factors, each 5-point increment in the injury severity score was associated with a 6%, 13%, 13%, and 15% increase in incidence rates of hypertension, coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, and chronic kidney disease, respectively. Acute kidney injury was associated with a 66% increase in rates of hypertension and nearly 5-fold increase in rates of chronic kidney disease. CONCLUSIONS: In Iraq and Afghanistan veterans, the severity of combat injury was associated with the subsequent development of hypertension, coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, and chronic kidney disease.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source:
  • Release Date/Publication: December 01, 2015
  • Citation: Stewart IJ, Sosnov JA, Howard JT, Orman JA, Fang R, Morrow BD, Zonies DH, Bollinger M, Tuman C, Freedman BA, Chung KK. Retrospective Analysis of Long-Term Outcomes After Combat Injury: A Hidden Cost of War. Circulation. 2015 Dec 1;132(22):2126-33.

Anger and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Severity in a Trauma-Exposed Military Population: Differences by Trauma Context and Gender.

Study

Abstract

Studies have found a stronger association between anger and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity in military populations than in nonmilitary populations. Two hypotheses have been proposed to explain this difference: Military populations are more prone to anger than nonmilitary populations, and traumas experienced on deployment create more anger than nondeployment traumas. To examine these hypotheses, we evaluated the association between anger and PTSD severity among never-deployed military service members with nondeployment traumas (n = 226) and deployed service members with deployment traumas (n = 594) using linear regression. We further examined these associations stratified by gender. Bivariate associations between anger and PTSD severity were similar for nondeployment and deployment events; however, gender modified this association. For men, the association for deployment events was stronger than for nondeployment events (β = .18, r = .53 vs. β = .16, r = .37, respectively), whereas the reverse was true for women (deployment: β = .20, r = .42 vs. nondeployment: β = .25, r = .65). Among men, findings supported the hypothesis that deployment traumas produce stronger associations between PTSD and anger and are inconsistent with hypothesized population differences. In women, however, there was not a clear fit with either hypothesis.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source:
  • Release Date/Publication: December 01, 2015
  • Citation: Worthen M, Rathod SD, Cohen G, Sampson L, Ursano R, Gifford R, et.al., Anger and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Severity in a Trauma-Exposed Military Population: Differences by Trauma Context and Gender. J Trauma Stress. 2015 Dec;28(6):539-46.

A Prognostic Model to Predict Mortality among Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Patients in the U.S. Military Health System.

Study

Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Accurate prognosis assessment after non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) diagnosis is an essential step for making effective clinical decisions. This study is aimed to develop a prediction model with routinely available variables to assess prognosis in patients with NSCLC in the U.S. Military Health System. METHODS: We used the linked database from the Department of Defense's Central Cancer Registry and the Military Health System Data Repository. The data set was randomly and equally split into a training set to guide model development and a testing set to validate the model prediction. Stepwise Cox regression was used to identify predictors of survival. Model performance was assessed by calculating area under the receiver operating curves and construction of calibration plots. A simple risk scoring system was developed to aid quick risk score calculation and risk estimation for NSCLC clinical management. RESULTS: The study subjects were 5054 patients diagnosed with NSCLC between 1998 and 2007. Age, sex, tobacco use, tumor stage, histology, surgery, chemotherapy, peripheral vascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, and diabetes mellitus were identified as significant predictors of survival. Calibration showed high agreement between predicted and observed event rates. The area under the receiver operating curves reached 0.841, 0.849, 0.848, and 0.838 during 1, 2, 3, and 5 years, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first NSCLC prognosis model for quick risk assessment within the Military Health System. After external validation, the model can be translated into clinical use both as a web-based tool and through mobile applications easily accessible to physicians, patients, and researchers.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Walter Reed National Military Medical Center/Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source:
  • Release Date/Publication: December 01, 2015
  • Citation: Lin J, Carter CA, McGlynn KA, Zahm SH, Nations JA, Anderson WF, Shriver CD, Zhu K. A Prognostic Model to Predict Mortality among Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Patients in the U.S. Military Health System. J Thorac Oncol. 2015 Dec;10(12):1694-702.

Treatment of active duty military with PTSD in primary care: A follow-up report.

Study

Abstract

First-line trauma-focused therapies offered in specialty mental health clinics do not reach many veterans and active duty service members with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Primary care is an ideal environment to expand access to mental health care. Several promising clinical case series reports of brief PTSD therapies adapted for primary care have shown positive results, but the long-term effectiveness with military members is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the long-term outcome of an open trial of a brief cognitive-behavioral primary care-delivered protocol developed specifically for deployment-related PTSD in a sample of 24 active duty military (15 men, 9 women). Measures of PTSD symptom severity showed statistically and clinically significant reductions from baseline to posttreatment that were maintained at the 6-month and 1-year follow-up assessments. Similar reductions were maintained in depressive symptoms and ratings of global mental health functioning.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source:
  • Release Date/Publication: December 01, 2015
  • Citation: Cigrang JA, Rauch SA, Mintz J, Brundige A, Avila LL, Bryan CJ, Goodie JL, Peterson AL; STRONG STAR Consortium. Treatment of active duty military with PTSD in primary care: A follow-up report. J Anxiety Disord. 2015 Dec;36:110-4.

Deployment, combat, and risk of multiple physical symptoms in the US military: A prospective cohort study.

Study

Abstract

PURPOSE: Multiple physical symptoms (MPS) have historically been observed after deployment to a combat zone and are often disabling in nature. This study examined longitudinal trends in MPS status and its relationship to deployment in U.S. military service members. METHODS: Using longitudinal data from panel 1 participants in the Millennium Cohort Study (n = 76,924), MPS status was assessed at three time points (2001-2008) using the 15-item Patient Health Questionnaire. Probability of reporting MPS was analyzed using mixed-effects multinomial logit regression, with time and deployment experience as main explanatory variables. RESULTS: After adjustment for demographic, military, and health characteristics, service members who deployed with combat were significantly more likely to report MPS at each time point compared with those not deployed (odds ratio [OR] and 95% confidence interval [CI] for wave 1 = 1.49 [1.47-1.52], wave 2 = 1.73 [1.69-1.78], wave 3 = 2.08 [2.03-2.12]), and those who deployed without combat (OR and CI for wave 1 = 2.66 [2.59-2.74], wave 2 = 1.81 [1.75-1.87]; wave 3 = 1.68 [1.63-1.74]). CONCLUSIONS: Longitudinal trends indicate that the probability of reporting MPS has increased consistently over time only for those deployed, regardless of combat experience.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Defense Centers of Excellence for Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source:
  • Release Date/Publication: December 01, 2015
  • Citation: McCutchan PK, Liu X, LeardMann CA, Smith TC, Boyko EJ, Gore KL, Freed MC, Engel CC. Deployment, combat, and risk of multiple physical symptoms in the US military: A prospective cohort study. Ann Epidemiol. 2015 Dec 11.

Prevalence of mental health conditions after military blast exposure, their co-occurrence, and their relation to mild traumatic brain injury.

Study

Abstract

PRIMARY OBJECTIVES: To measure common psychiatric conditions after military deployment with blast exposure and test relationships to post-concussion syndrome (PCS) symptoms and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) history. RESEARCH DESIGN: Cross-sectional. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Service members or Veterans (n = 107) within 2 years of blast exposure underwent structured interviews for mTBI, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and multiple mood and anxiety diagnoses. MAIN OUTCOMES AND RESULTS: MTBI history and active PTSD were both common, additionally 61% had at least one post-deployment mood or anxiety disorder episode. Psychiatric diagnoses had a high degree of comorbidity. Most dramatically, depression was 43-times (95% CI = 11-165) more likely if an individual had PTSD. PCS symptoms were greater in those with post-deployment PTSD or mood diagnosis. However, neither mTBI nor blast exposure history had an effect on the odds of having PTSD, mood or anxiety condition. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support that psychiatric conditions beyond PTSD are common after military combat deployment with blast exposure. They also highlight the non-specificity of post-concussion type symptoms. While some researchers have implicated mTBI history as a contributor to post-deployment mental health conditions, no clear association was found. This may partly be due to the more rigorous method of retrospective mTBI diagnosis determination.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source:
  • Release Date/Publication: December 01, 2015
  • Citation: Walker WC, Franke LM, McDonald SD, Sima AP, Keyser-Marcus L. Prevalence of mental health conditions after military blast exposure, their co-occurrence, and their relation to mild traumatic brain injury. Brain Inj. 2015 Dec;29(13-14):1581-8.

Challenges in Obtaining Estimates of the Risk of Tuberculosis Infection During Overseas Deployment.

Study

Abstract

Estimates of the risk of tuberculosis (TB) infection resulting from overseas deployment among U.S. military service members have varied widely, and have been plagued by methodological problems. The purpose of this study was to estimate the incidence of TB infection in the U.S. military resulting from deployment. Three populations were examined: 1) a unit of 2,228 soldiers redeploying from Iraq in 2008, 2) a cohort of 1,978 soldiers followed up over 5 years after basic training at Fort Jackson in 2009, and 3) 6,062 participants in the 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The risk of TB infection in the deployed population was low-0.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.1-2.3%)-and was similar to the non-deployed population. The prevalence of latent TB infection (LTBI) in the U.S. population was not significantly different among deployed and non-deployed veterans and those with no military service. The limitations of these retrospective studies highlight the challenge in obtaining valid estimates of risk using retrospective data and the need for a more definitive study. Similar to civilian long-term travelers, risks for TB infection during deployment are focal in nature, and testing should be targeted to only those at increased risk.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source:
  • Release Date/Publication: December 01, 2015
  • Citation: Mancuso JD, Geurts M. Challenges in Obtaining Estimates of the Risk of Tuberculosis Infection During Overseas Deployment. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2015 Dec 9;93(6):1172-8.

Military-to-civilian translation of battlefield innovations in operative trauma care.

Study

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Historic improvements in operative trauma care have been driven by war. It is unknown whether recent battlefield innovations stemming from conflicts in Iraq/Afghanistan will follow a similar trend. The objective of this study was to survey trauma medical directors (TMDs) at level 1-3 trauma centers across the United States and gauge the extent to which battlefield innovations have shaped civilian practice in 4 key domains of trauma care. METHODS: Domains were determined by the use of a modified Delphi method based on multiple consultations with an expert physician/surgeon panel: (1) damage control resuscitation (DCR), (2) tourniquet use, (3) use of hemostatic agents, and (4) prehospital interventions, including intraosseous catheter access and needle thoracostomy. A corresponding 47-item electronic anonymous survey was developed/pilot tested before dissemination to all identifiable TMD at level 1-3 trauma centers across the US. RESULTS: A total of 245 TMDs, representing nearly 40% of trauma centers in the United States, completed and returned the survey. More than half (n = 127; 51.8%) were verified by the American College of Surgeons. TMDs reported high civilian use of DCR: 95.1% of trauma centers had implemented massive transfusion protocols and the majority (67.7%) tended toward 1:1:1 packed red blood cell/fresh-frozen plasma/platelets ratios. For the other 3, mixed adoption corresponded to expressed concerns regarding the extent of concomitant civilian research to support military research and experience. In centers in which policies reflecting battlefield innovations were in use, previous military experience frequently was acknowledged. CONCLUSION: This national survey of TMDs suggests that military data supporting DCR has altered civilian practice. Perceived relevance in other domains was less clear. Civilian academic efforts are needed to further research and enhance understandings that foster improved trauma surgeon awareness of military-to-civilian translation.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source:
  • Release Date/Publication: December 01, 2015
  • Citation: Haider AH, Piper LC, Zogg CK, Schneider EB, Orman JA, Butler FK, et. al., Military-to-civilian translation of battlefield innovations in operative trauma care. Surgery. 2015 Dec;158(6):1686-95.

Follow-up analysis of the incidence of acute respiratory infections among enlisted service members during their first year of military service before and after the 2011 resumption of adenovirus vaccination of basic trainees.

Study

Abstract

This analysis estimated the incidence rates of acute respiratory infections (ARIs) during the first year of military service for service members in 16 cohorts (designated 1999 through 2014) based on the years in which they began their service. That first year of service was divided into two separate follow-up periods: the first 3 months of service (corresponding to the period of initial entry training) and the next 9 months of service (months 4-12). The surveillance period covered service members whose first years of service were before and after the 2011 resumption of the administration of adenovirus vaccines, types 4 and 7, to enlisted trainees at the beginning of their initial training periods. In general, the findings were that incidence rates of ARIs were relatively high for the cohorts who did not receive the vaccines, and that the rates were dramatically lower in the cohorts (2012-2014) who did receive the vaccines. These observations pertained to both the first 3 months of service and the next 9 months of service. Possible interpretations of these findings and the limitations of the study methods are discussed.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Release Date/Publication: December 01, 2015
  • Citation: O'Donnell FL, Taubman SB. Follow-up analysis of the incidence of acute respiratory infections among enlisted service members before and after the 2011 resumption of adenovirus vaccination of basic trainees. MSMR. 2015 Dec;22(12):2-7.

Investigation of Self-Reported Musculoskeletal Injuries on Post-Deployment Health Assessment Forms for Aeromedical Evacuation Personnel.

Study

Abstract

Musculoskeletal injuries (MSIs) are a concern for the military community because of medical expenses, possible disability, and separation from the military. This study investigated the prevalence of MSIs in deployed aeromedical evacuation (AE) populations reported on Post-Deployment Health Assessment (PDHA) forms. A secondary aim was to examine the relationship between the occurrence of self-reported MSIs on PDHAs and a subsequent medical diagnosis. Flight nurses (Air Force Specialty Code [AFSC] 46F) and AE technicians (AETs) (AFSC 4N0 with a flight duty badge) who completed a PDHA during 2008-2010 were investigated. Data from the test population were compared with a control group of deployed ground-based counterparts. During this time period, 1,366 and 1,959 PDHAs were completed by the AE nursing and AET groups, respectively. At least 1 MSI was reported by 18% of AE nurse and 19% of AET compared with 23% of non-AE nurse and 25% of non-AET PDHAs. Of these individuals with reported MSIs, 35% and 44% of AE nurse and AET PDHAs, respectively, had a diagnosis matching their MSIs. Identifying the prevalence of MSIs in the unique AE environment can lead to the development of preventative and ergonomic solutions, minimizing the risk of MSIs and improving mission success.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Air Force
  • Sponsoring Office:
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Air Force
  • Release Date/Publication: December 01, 2015
  • Citation: Fouts BL, Serres JL, Dukes SF, Maupin GM, Wade ME, Pohlman DM. Investigation of Self-Reported Musculoskeletal Injuries on Post-Deployment Health Assessment Forms for Aeromedical Evacuation Personnel. Mil Med. 2015 Dec;180(12):1256-61

Sexually transmitted infections and sexual behavior of deploying shipboard US military personnel: a cross-sectional analysis.

Study

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence and risk behavior may differ at different phases of deployment. We examined STI prevalence and sexual behavior in the predeployment time period (12 months prior) among recently deployed shipboard US Navy and Marine Corps military personnel. METHODS: Data were collected from 1938 male and 515 female service members through an anonymous, self-completed survey assessing sexual behaviours and STI acquisition characteristics in the past 12 months. Cross-sectional sex-stratified descriptive statistics are reported. RESULTS: Overall, 67% (n=1262/1896) reported last sex with a military beneficiary (spouse, n=931, non-spouse service member, n=331). Among those with a sexual partner outside their primary partnership, 24% (n=90/373) reported using a condom the last time they had sex and 30% (n=72/243) reported their outside partner was a service member. In total, 90% (n=210/233) reported acquiring their most recent STI in the USA (88%, n=126/143 among those reporting ≥1 deployments and an STI ≥1 year ago) and a significantly higher proportion (p<0.01) of women than men acquired the STI from their regular partner (54% vs 21%) and/or a service member (50% vs 26%). CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest a complex sexual network among service members and military beneficiaries. Findings may extend to other mobile civilian and military populations. Data suggest most STI transmission within the shipboard community may occur in local versus foreign ports but analyses from later time points in deployment are needed. These data may inform more effective STI prevention interventions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Walter Reed National Military Medical Center
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Agency, office or organization under authority of the Sec Def (not affiliated to Army, Navy, or Air Force)
  • Release Date/Publication: December 01, 2015
  • Citation: Harbertson J, Scott PT, Moore J, Wolf M, Morris J, Thrasher S et.al., Sexually transmitted infections and sexual behaviour of deploying shipboard US military personnel: a cross-sectional analysis. Sex Transm Infect. 2015 Dec;91(8):581-8.

Prescription Stimulants and PTSD Among U. S. Military Service Members.

Study

Abstract

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a prevalent condition among military service members and civilians who have experienced traumatic events. Stimulant use has been postulated to increase the risk of incident PTSD; however, research in this area is lacking. In this study, the association between receipt of prescription stimulants and PTSD was examined in a secondary analysis among active duty U.S. military members (n = 25,971), participating in the Millennium Cohort Study, who completed a baseline (2001-2003) and two follow-up surveys (between 2004-2008). Prescription stimulant data were obtained from the military Pharmacy Data Transaction Service. PTSD was assessed using the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version and incident PTSD was defined as meeting the criteria at follow-up among those who did not have a history of PTSD at baseline. Overall, 1,215 (4.7%) persons developed new-onset PTSD during follow-up. Receipt of prescription stimulants were significantly associated with incident PTSD, hazard ratio = 5.09, 95% confidence interval [3.05, 8.50], after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, military characteristics, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, baseline mental and physical health status, deployment experiences, and physical/sexual trauma. Findings suggested that prescription stimulants are associated with incident PTSD among military personnel; these data may inform the underlying pathogenesis of and preventive strategies for PTSD.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source:
  • Release Date/Publication: December 01, 2015
  • Citation: Crum-Cianflone NF, Frasco MA, Armenta RF, Phillips CJ, Horton J, Ryan MA, Russell DW, LeardMann C. Prescription Stimulants and PTSD Among U. S. Military Service Members. J Trauma Stress. 2015 Dec;28(6):585-9.
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