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Studies

On this page you can find various studies developed by Military Health System. Please scroll down or use the search box to find specific studies.

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A prospective cohort study of treatment decision-making for prostate cancer following participation in a multidisciplinary clinic.

Study

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Patients diagnosed with prostate cancer (PCa) are presented with several treatment options of similar efficacy but varying side effects. Understanding how and why patients make their treatment decisions, as well as the effect of treatment choice on long-term outcomes, is critical to ensuring effective, patient-centered care. This study examined treatment decision-making in a racially diverse, equal-access, contemporary cohort of patients with PCa counseled on treatment options at a multidisciplinary clinic. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was initiated at the Walter Reed National Military Medical Center (formerly Walter Reed Army Medical Center) in 2006. Newly diagnosed patients with PCa were enrolled before attending a multidisciplinary clinic. Patients completed surveys preclinic and postclinic to assess treatment preferences, reasons for treatment choice, and decisional regret. RESULTS: As of January 2014, 925 patients with PCa enrolled in this study. Surgery (54%), external radiation (20%), and active surveillance (12%) were the most common primary treatments for patients with low- and intermediate-risk PCa, whereas patients with high-risk PCa chose surgery (34%) or external radiation with neoadjuvant hormones (57%). Treatment choice differed by age at diagnosis, race, comorbidity status, and calendar year in both univariable and multivariable analyses. Patients preferred to play an active role in the decision-making process and cited doctors at the clinic as the most helpful source of treatment-related information. Almost all patients reported satisfaction with their decision. CONCLUSIONS: This is one of the first prospective cohort studies to examine treatment decision-making in an equal-access, multidisciplinary clinic setting. Studies of this cohort would aid in understanding and improving the PCa decision-making process.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Walter Reed National Military Medical Center/Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source:
  • Release Date/Publication: December 01, 2015
  • Citation: Hurwitz LM, Cullen J, Elsamanoudi S, Kim DJ, Hudak J, Colston M, et.al., A prospective cohort study of treatment decision-making for prostate cancer following participation in a multidisciplinary clinic. Urol Oncol. 2015 Dec 15.

Comparison of overweight and obese military-dependent and civilian adolescent girls with loss-of-control eating.

Study

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Limited data suggest that the children of U.S. service members may be at increased risk for disordered-eating. To date, no study has directly compared adolescent military-dependents to their civilian peers along measures of eating pathology and associated correlates. We, therefore, compared overweight and obese adolescent female military-dependents to their civilian counterparts along measures of eating-related pathology and psychosocial functioning. METHOD: Adolescent females with a BMI between the 85th and 97th percentiles and who reported loss-of-control eating completed interview and questionnaire assessments of eating-related and general psychopathology. RESULTS: Twenty-three military-dependents and 105 civilians participated. Controlling for age, race, and BMI-z, military-dependents reported significantly more binge episodes per month (p < 0.01), as well as greater eating-concern, shape-concern, and weight-concern (p's < 0.01) than civilians. Military-dependents also reported more severe depression (p < 0.05). DISCUSSION: Adolescent female military-dependents may be particularly vulnerable to disordered-eating compared with civilian peers. This potential vulnerability should be considered when assessing military-dependents.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source:
  • Release Date/Publication: September 01, 2015
  • Citation: Schvey NA, et al., Comparison of overweight and obese military-dependent and civilian adolescent girls with loss-of-control eating. Int J Eat Disord. 2015 Sep;48(6):790-4.

Safety, Tolerability, and Compliance with Long-Term Antimalarial Chemoprophylaxis in American Soldiers in Afghanistan.

Study

Abstract

Long-term antimalarial chemoprophylaxis is currently used by deployed U.S. military personnel. Previous small, short-term efficacy studies have shown variable rates of side effects among patients taking various forms of chemoprophylaxis, though reliable safety and tolerability data on long-term use are limited. We conducted a survey of troops returning to Fort Drum, NY following a 12-month deployment to Operation Enduring Freedom, Afghanistan from 2006 to 2007. Of the 2,351 respondents, 95% reported taking at least one form of prophylaxis during their deployment, and 90% were deployed for > 10 months. Compliance with daily doxycycline was poor (60%) compared with 80% with weekly mefloquine (MQ). Adverse events (AEs) were reported by approximately 30% with both MQ and doxycycline, with 10% discontinuing doxycycline compared with 4% of MQ users. Only 6% and 31% of soldiers reported use of bed nets and skin repellents, respectively. Compliance with long-term malaria prophylaxis was poor, and there were substantial tolerability issues based on these anonymous survey results, though fewer with MQ than doxycycline. Given few long-term antimalarial chemoprophylaxis options, there is an unmet medical need for new antimalarials safe for long-term use.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Walter Reed National Military Medical Center
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source:
  • Release Date/Publication: September 01, 2015
  • Citation: Saunders DL, et. al.,

Blurred front lines: triage and initial management of blast injuries.

Study

Abstract

Recent armed conflicts and the expanded reach of international terror groups has resulted in an increased incidence of blast-related injuries in both military and civilian populations. Mass-casualty incidents may require both on-scene and in-hospital triage to maximize survival rates and conserve limited resources. Initial evaluation should focus on the identification and control of potentially life-threatening conditions, especially life-threatening hemorrhage. Early operative priorities for musculoskeletal injuries focus on the principles of damage-control orthopaedics, with early and aggressive debridement of soft-tissue wounds, vascular shunting or grafting to restore limb perfusion, and long-bone fracture stabilization via external fixation. Special considerations such as patient transport, infection control and prevention, and amputation management are also discussed. All orthopedic surgeons, regardless of practice setting, should be familiar with the basic principles of evaluation, resuscitation, and initial management of explosive blast injuries.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Walter Reed National Military Medical Center
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Release Date/Publication: September 01, 2015
  • Citation: Balazs GC, Blais MB, Bluman EM, Andersen RC, Potter BK. Blurred front lines: triage and initial management of blast injuries. Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med. 2015 Sep;8(3):304-11.

Longitudinal assessment of gender differences in the development of PTSD among US military personnel deployed in support of the operations in Iraq and Afghanistan.

Study

Abstract

Divergent findings from previous research examining gender differences in the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among US military members deployed to the operations in Iraq or Afghanistan (recent operations) prompted this study utilizing a matching approach to examine whether risk for new-onset PTSD and PTSD severity scores differed by gender. US military members from the Millennium Cohort Study deployed in support of the recent operations were followed for approximately 7 years from baseline through 2 follow-up periods between 2001 and 2008. Propensity score matching was used to match 1 male to each female using demographic, military, and behavioral factors including baseline sexual assault. Analyses were stratified by combat experience defined as reporting at least one of five exposures during follow-up. Outcome measures included a positive screen for PTSD and severity scores measured by the PTSD Patient Checklist-Civilian Version. Discrete-time survival analysis quantified the association between gender and incident PTSD. Among 4684 matched subjects (2342 women and men), 6.7% of women and 6.1% of men developed PTSD during follow-up. Results showed no significant gender differences for the likelihood of developing PTSD or for PTSD severity scores among women and men who reported combat experience and among those who did not. This study is the first of its kind to match a large population of male and female service members on important baseline characteristics including sexual assault. Findings suggest that while combat deployed personnel develop PTSD, women do not have a significantly different risk for developing PTSD than men after experiencing combat.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source:
  • Release Date/Publication: September 01, 2015
  • Citation: Jacobson IG, et. al., Longitudinal assessment of gender differences in the development of PTSD among US military personnel deployed in support of the operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. J Psychiatr Res. 2015 Sep;68:30-6.

Multiple Past Concussions Are Associated with Ongoing Post-Concussive Symptoms but Not Cognitive Impairment in Active-Duty Army Soldiers.

Study

Abstract

The extent to which multiple past concussions are associated with lingering symptoms or mental health problems in military service members is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between lifetime concussion history, cognitive functioning, general health, and psychological health in a large sample of fit-for-duty U.S. Army soldiers preparing for deployment. Data on 458 active-duty soldiers were collected and analyzed. A computerized cognitive screening battery (CNS-Vital Signs(®)) was used to assess complex attention (CA), reaction time (RT), processing speed (PS), cognitive flexibility (CF), and memory. Health questionnaires included the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory (NSI), PTSD Checklist-Military Version (PCL-M), Zung Depression and Anxiety Scales (ZDS; ZAS), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and the Alcohol Use and Dependency Identification Test (AUDIT). Soldiers with a history of multiple concussions (i.e., three or more concussions) had significantly greater post-concussive symptom scores compared with those with zero (d=1.83, large effect), one (d=0.64, medium effect), and two (d=0.64, medium effect) prior concussions. Although the group with three or more concussions also reported more traumatic stress symptoms, the results revealed that traumatic stress was a mediator between concussions and post-concussive symptom severity. There were no significant differences on neurocognitive testing between the number of concussions. These results add to the accumulating evidence suggesting that most individuals recover from one or two prior concussions, but there is a greater risk for ongoing symptoms if one exceeds this number of injuries.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Walter Reed National Military Medical Center
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source:
  • Release Date/Publication: September 01, 2015
  • Citation: Dretsch MN, et. al., Multiple Past Concussions Are Associated with Ongoing Post-Concussive Symptoms but Not Cognitive Impairment in Active-Duty Army Soldiers. J Neurotrauma. 2015 Sep 1;32(17):1301-6.

Typhoid fever cases in the U.S. military.

Study

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Salmonella enterica, serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), a causative agent of enteric fever (typhoid fever), predominately affects populations in developing regions with poor access to clean food and water. In addition, travelers to these regions are at risk of exposure. METHODS: We report the epidemiological characteristics of S. Typhi cases among active duty United States military personnel from 1998 to 2011 using data obtained from the Defense Medical Surveillance System. Cases were identified based on International Classification for Disease Ninth Edition - Clinical Modification codes. RESULTS: We identified a total of 205 cases S. Typhi for an incidence of 1.09 per 100,000 person-years. Cases were on average 31.7 years old, predominately married (n = 129, 62.9 %), Caucasian (n = 142, 69.3 %), male (n = 176, 85.9 %), and had a high school education (n = 101, 49.3 %). Of the identified cases, 122 had received a Typhoid vaccination within 4 years of diagnosis. CONCLUSION: This study provides an overview of enteric fever in the United States military. The incidence was similar to the general U.S. population except for increased incidence from 1998 to 2000, perhaps attributable to operational deployments in that period. Given that vaccination is an effective primary prevention measure against typhoid fever, active monitoring of pre-deployment vaccine history is warranted.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Navy
  • Sponsoring Office: Naval Medical Research Center
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Navy
  • Release Date/Publication: October 01, 2015
  • Citation: Sorrell T, Selig DJ, Riddle MS, Porter CK. Typhoid fever cases in the U.S. military. BMC Infect Dis. 2015 Oct 14;15:424.

An Overview of Biorepositories-Past, Present, and Future

Study

Abstract

The collection, storage, and distribution of biological materials for research and improving health have been employed for more than a century. Biorepositories have been used to maintain and reallocate these specimens. Historically, the Department of Defense (DoD) has been maintaining biorepositories and using the materials stored to expand our understanding of diseases and for developing medical countermeasures since the Civil War. Other U.S. Government and nongovernmental organizations are also engaged in curating human and other samples for future studies, as are organizations in other countries. The reasons for collection and the possible uses of specimens maintained within repositories have changed with the advent of novel technologies and the genomics discipline. However, over the years, many of the issues faced by repositories have remained largely the same, although of increased importance more recently because of limited funding and enhanced ethical concerns. These issues include what samples to collect; how to collect, transport, and store the samples; legal and ethical matters relating to sample collection and use; durability of analytes of interest in stored specimens; assessing the quality of stored specimens and providing researchers with statements of specimen quality; costs; maintenance and sustainability of the repository; and, implementing and maintaining laboratory quality programs and possibly accreditation. National and international scientific groups are working to identify and define best practices, but universal standards and practices remain challenges for the future. To begin addressing the above issues, the DoD implemented several initiatives, which are described elsewhere in this Military Medicine Supplement. Additionally, staff members working on the issues saw potential value in identifying other biorepository groups and similar work being done by these groups with the expectation of developing lines of communication and, eventually, even collaboration in establishing universal standards and practices. The repositories identified are briefly discussed in this report.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Release Date/Publication: October 01, 2015
  • Citation: Siwek M. An Overview of Biorepositories-Past, Present, and Future. Mil Med. 2015 Oct;180(10 Suppl):57-66.

Completeness and timeliness of reporting of notifiable medical conditions, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2008-2014.

Study

Abstract

The complete and timely reporting of notifiable medical conditions occurring among U.S. military service members is important for the control of communicable and preventable diseases and injuries. The Defense Medical Surveillance System (DMSS) was used to identify all hospital and ambulatory care encounters among service members occurring during 2008-2014. Incident encounters with diagnoses of Department of Defense notifiable medical conditions were matched to reportable medical events entered through the Disease Reporting System Internet. Over this time period, the Services reported 47.6% of notifiable hospitalized cases and 57.2% of notifiable ambulatory care cases. Timeliness of reporting improved over the time period with 40.0% of notifiable hospitalized cases reported within 1 week in 2008 and 73.6% in 2014. For ambulatory care cases, 62.3% were reported within 1 week in 2008 and 81.3% in 2014.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Release Date/Publication: October 01, 2015
  • Citation: Hurt L, Ying S. Completeness and timeliness of reporting of notifiable medical conditions, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2008-2014. MSMR. 2015 Nov;22(11):8-21.

Insomnia in the Military: Application and Effectiveness of Cognitive and Pharmacologic Therapies.

Study

Abstract

Insomnia is one of the most common complaints of US armed service members. Diagnosis and treatment of insomnia in active duty and veteran populations are often complicated by comorbid disorders experienced by military personnel, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTi), pharmacologic interventions, and alternative therapies are discussed as relevant to their applications within military populations. Future directions in research are suggested.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Walter Reed National Military Medical Center
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Release Date/Publication: October 01, 2015
  • Citation: Capaldi VF 2nd, Kim JR, Grillakis AA, Taylor MR, York CM. Insomnia in the Military: Application and Effectiveness of Cognitive and Pharmacologic Therapies. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2015 Oct;17(10):85

Causes of combat ocular trauma-related blindness from Operation Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom.

Study

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The incidence of eye injuries in military service members is high in the combat setting. This is the first study that identifies the primary reason for poor visual acuity (worse than 20/200). METHODS: This is a retrospective, noncomparative, interventional case series analyzing US Operation Iraqi and Enduring Freedom members who were evacuated from the theater of operations to Walter Reed Army Medical Center from 2001 through 2011. Primary outcome measures were the length of follow-up, globe survival, and anatomic causes of blindness. Secondary outcome measures included surgical procedures performed, use of eye protection, nonocular injuries, incidence of traumatic brain injury, source of injury, visual outcomes, and predictability of Ocular Trauma Score (OTS) on visual outcome. Univariate analysis was performed using χ and Fisher's exact test. A p < 0.01 was considered significant because of the multiple hypotheses tested. RESULTS: There were 265 eyes of 239 patients who had final best-corrected visual acuity of worse than 20/200. The average age was 27.4 years (range, 19-53 years). Of the patients, 97.5% were male, and 28.9% had documented use of eye protection. The average follow-up was 350.19 days (range, 3-2,421 days). There were 128 right-eye and 133 left-eye injuries, with a total of 26 bilateral injuries. There were 206 open-globe and 56 closed-globe injuries, which were further subdivided into zones. Open-globe Zone III injuries (81.6%) were the number one cause of blindness, and most injuries were caused by improvised explosive devices (64.2%). Enucleation was the most common surgery performed (40.6%) and therefore the leading cause of blindness, followed by a multifactorial cause and direct traumatic optic neuropathy. CONCLUSION: Ocular trauma is common among combat injuries. Close to a third of service members that experience an ocular trauma become legally blind. Further research is needed to focus on strategies to prevent injury and improve visual outcomes.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Walter Reed National Military Medical Center
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source:
  • Release Date/Publication: October 01, 2015
  • Citation: Vlasov A, Ryan DS, Ludlow S, Weichel ED, Colyer MH. Causes of combat ocular trauma-related blindness from Operation Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2015 Oct;79(4 Suppl 2):S210-5.

A Brief Description of the Operation of the DoD Serum Repository.

Study

Abstract

Beginning in 1985, the United States military has consistently maintained repositories of frozen human serum for force health protection reasons. The separate repositories created by the Army, Navy, and Air Force during the startup of their human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) screening programs were fully combined by 1996, along with the Defense Medical Surveillance System, to form the DoD Serum Repository (DoDSR). Currently comprised of 450,000 square feet of storage space at a constant -30 degrees Celsius, the DoDSR, operated by the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center (AFHSC), receives approximately 2 million new serum specimens per year as a result of current HIV screening programs and pre- and post-deployment serum collection. Following initial testing for HIV when required, each specimen remains frozen until needed for clinical testing or a public health study, and its physical location is carefully tracked. Certain militarily-relevant research studies occur, though the serum from a specific individual is never allowed to be fully exhausted. AFHSC maintains careful control over the repository, utilizing a scientific review board to determine which requests for serum will be granted. As of 2012, only 0.42% of all of the frozen specimens in the DoDSR had been thawed for any type of use. The addition of new specimen processing capacity and significant changes to policy would be required if more of the specimens were to be used to answer relevant epidemiological, operational, or medical research questions.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Release Date/Publication: October 01, 2015
  • Citation: Perdue CL, Eick-Cost AA, Rubertone MV. A Brief Description of the Operation of the DoD Serum Repository. Mil Med. 2015 Oct;180(10 Suppl):10-2.

The DoD Joint Pathology Center as a Resource for Researchers.

Study

Abstract

The Department of Defense's Joint Pathology Center (JPC) is the world's largest collection of human pathology specimens, comprising some 7.4 million accessions. The biorepository, which began during the Civil War as a collection of materials obtained from medical and surgical procedures performed by Army physicians, houses specimens and associated data obtained for diagnostic purposes. It also holds several collections of specimens from military personnel who shared a common, service-related exposure or medical condition. This article, which is excerpted and adapted from the 2012 Institute of Medicine report "Future Uses of the Department of Defense JPC Biorepository,"1 summarizes information on the repository, its past uses, and the future operational issues and challenges that the JPC faces as it develops a concept of operations that will allow it to move forward as a resource for researchers.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Joint Pathology Center
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Release Date/Publication: October 01, 2015
  • Citation: Butler DA, Baker TP. The DoD Joint Pathology Center as a Resource for Researchers. Mil Med. 2015 Oct;180(10 Suppl):85-9.

Molecular Epidemiology of Adenovirus Type 21 Respiratory Strains Isolated From US Military Trainees (1996-2014).

Study

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The circulation of human adenovirus type 21 (HAdV21) in the United States has been documented since the 1960s in association with outbreaks of febrile respiratory illness (FRI) in military boot camps and civilian cases of respiratory disease. METHODS: To describe the molecular epidemiology of HAdV21 respiratory infections across the country, 150 clinical respiratory isolates obtained from continuous surveillance of military recruit FRI, and 23 respiratory isolates recovered from pediatric and adult civilian cases of acute respiratory infection were characterized to compile molecular typing data spanning 37 years (1978-2014). RESULTS: Restriction enzyme analysis and genomic sequencing identified 2 clusters of closely related genomic variants readily distinguishable from the prototype and designated 21a-like and 21b-like. A-like variants predominated until 1999. A shift to b-like variants was noticeable by 2007 after a 7-year period (2000-2006) of cocirculation of the 2 genome types. US strains are phylogenetically more closely related to European and Asian strains isolated over the last 4 decades than to the Saudi Arabian prototype strain AV-1645 isolated in 1956. CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge of circulating HAdV21 variants and their epidemic behavior will be of significant value to local and global FRI surveillance efforts.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Walter Reed National Military Medical Center
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source:
  • Release Date/Publication: October 01, 2015
  • Citation: Kajon AE, et. al., Molecular Epidemiology of Adenovirus Type 21 Respiratory Strains Isolated From US Military Trainees (1996-2014). J Infect Dis. 2015 Sep 15;212(6):871-80.

Longitudinal determinants of mental health treatment-seeking by US soldiers.

Study

Abstract

Background Studies with members of the armed forces have found a gap between reports of mental health symptoms and treatment-seeking. Aims To assess the impact of attitudes on treatment-seeking behaviours in soldiers returning from a combat deployment. Method A sample of 529 US soldiers were surveyed 4 months (time 1) and 12 months (time 2) post-deployment. Mental health symptoms and treatment-seeking attitudes were assessed at time 1; reported mental healthcare visits were assessed at time 2.Results Factor analysis of the total time 1 sample revealed four attitude factors: professional concerns, practical barriers, preference for self-management and positive attitudes about treatment. For the subset of 160 soldiers reporting a mental health problem at time 1, and controlling for mental health symptom severity, self-management inversely predicted treatment-seeking; positive attitudes were positively related. Conclusions Results demonstrate the importance of broadening the conceptualization of barriers and facilitators of mental healthcare beyond stigma. Techniques and delivery models emphasising self-care may help increase soldiers' interest in using mental health services.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Walter Reed National Military Medical Center
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Army
  • Release Date/Publication: October 01, 2015
  • Citation: Adler AB, Britt TW, Riviere LA, Kim PY, Thomas JL. Longitudinal determinants of mental health treatment-seeking by US soldiers. Br J Psychiatry. 2015 Oct;207(4):346-50.
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