Skip to main content

Military Health System

Surveillance Snapshot: Cervical Cancer Screening Among U.S. Military Service Women in the Millennium Cohort Study, 2003–2015

Image of Lt. Cmdr. Leslye Green, staff obstetrician and gynecologist, Naval Hospital Pensacola (NHP), uses a model to discuss cervical cancer with a patient at NHP. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), cervical cancer is highly preventable because screening tests for cervical cancer and vaccines to protect against human papillomavirus (HPV), which is the main cause of cervical cancer, are readily available. Cervical cancer is highly treatable and associated with long survival and good quality of life when it is detected early. (U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 1st Class Brannon Deugan). Lt. Cmdr. Leslye Green, staff obstetrician and gynecologist, Naval Hospital Pensacola (NHP), uses a model to discuss cervical cancer with a patient at NHP. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), cervical cancer is highly preventable because screening tests for cervical cancer and vaccines to protect against human papillomavirus (HPV), which is the main cause of cervical cancer, are readily available. Cervical cancer is highly treatable and associated with long survival and good quality of life when it is detected early. (U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 1st Class Brannon Deugan)

Recommended Content:

Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

The Millennium Cohort Study is a prospective study that was initiated in 2001 and includes over 200,000 current and prior U.S. military service members.1 Questionnaires are sent to participants approximately every 3 years to collect information on service related experiences as well as mental, physical, and behavioral health. Compliance with contemporary cervical cancer screening recommendations was determined among service women enrolled in the Millennium Cohort Study during 2003–2015. Current cervical cancer screening recommendations call for a Pap smear alone every 3 years in women aged 21–65 years or for a human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA test with or without a Pap test every 5 years for women aged 30–65 years.2 Women were considered eligible for screening in a given year if they were aged 21–62 years on the last day of the year, had served in the active component (i.e., at least 9 months in active component pay and strength rosters) for the concurrent year and 2 years before, had not had a hysterectomyA partial or total surgical removal of the uterus. It may also involve removal of the cervix, ovaries, Fallopian tubes, and other surrounding structures. hysterectomy, and had not separated from the military. Women were considered compliant with screening recommendations between 2003–2015 if they had a medical report of a Pap smear in the year of assessment or prior 2 calendar years. Women were also considered compliant with screening recommendations in 2013–2015 if they had HPV DNA testing completed within the previous 5 years.

Overall, among U.S. service women in the Millennium Cohort Study, the compliance rate increased from 61.2% in 2003 to a peak of 83.1% in 2010 then declined to a low of 59.8% in 2015 (Figure). During the first 7 years of the study period, compliance was highest among Air Force personnel. Between 2013 and 2015, compliance was highest among Coast Guard personnel. Compliance was lowest among Navy personnel in all but 1 year (2004) of the 13-year period. Compliance was also consistently higher for service women who had initiated the HPV vaccine than for women who had not (on average 6.3% higher). No differences in compliance were observed by cigarette smoking status, which was used as a surrogate measure of other health behaviors.

Author affiliations: Deployment Health Research Department in the Military Population Health Directorate, Naval Health Research Center, San Diego, CA (Dr. Matsuno, Dr. Porter, Mr. Warner, CAPT Wells); Leidos, San Diego, CA (Dr. Matsuno, Dr. Porter, Mr. Warner).

Disclaimer: One of the authors of this work is a military service member or employee of the U.S. Government. This work was prepared as part of their official duties. Title 17, U.S.C. §105 provides that copyright protection under this title is not available for any work of the U.S. Government. Title 17, U.S.C. §101 defines a U.S. Government work as work prepared by a military service member or employee of the U.S. Government as part of that person’s official duties. This report was supported by the Military Operational Medicine Research Program under work unit no. 60002. The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of the Department of the Navy, Department of Defense, or the U.S. Government.

 

References

Bulleted List for References

  1. Gray GC, Chesbrough KB, Ryan MA, et al. The Millennium Cohort Study: a 21-year prospective cohort study of 140,000 military personnel. Mil Med. 2002;167(6):483–488.
  2. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Final recommendation statement. Cervical cancer: screening. https://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/recommendation/cervical-cancer-screening?ds=1&s=pap. Accessed 9 April 2020.

FIGURE. Cervical screening rates among service women, by branch of service, U.S. Armed Forces, 2003–2015

You also may be interested in...

Incidence and Management of Chronic Insomnia, Active Component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2012 to 2021

Article
1/1/2023
Incidence and Management of Chronic Insomnia, Active Component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2012 to 2021

Incidence and Management of Chronic Insomnia, Active Component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2012 to 2021.

Recommended Content:

Health Readiness & Combat Support | Public Health | Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

Increased Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity and Incidence of Prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes During the COVID-19 Pandemic, Active Component Service Members, U.S. Armed Forces, 2018 to 2021

Article
1/1/2023
Trends in the incidence of eating disorders among active component service members, 2017 to 2021.

Increased Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity and Incidence of Prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes During the COVID-19 Pandemic, Active Component Service Members, U.S. Armed Forces, 2018 to 2021.

Recommended Content:

Health Readiness & Combat Support | Public Health | Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

Trends in the Incidence of Eating Disorders Among Active Component Service Members, 2017 to 2021

Article
1/1/2023
Changes in the prevalence of overweight and obesity and in the incidence of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes during the COVID-19 pandemic, active component service members, U.S. Armed Forces, 2018 to 2021.

Trends in the Incidence of Eating Disorders Among Active Component Service Members, 2017 to 2021.

Recommended Content:

Health Readiness & Combat Support | Public Health | Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

MSMR Vol. 30 No. 1 - January 2023

Report
1/1/2023

A monthly publication of the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Division. This issue of the peer-reviewed journal contains the following articles: Incidence and management of chronic insomnia, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2012 to 2021; Changes in the prevalence of overweight and obesity and in the incidence of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes during the COVID-19 pandemic, active component service members, U.S. Armed Forces, 2018 to 2021; Trends in the incidence of eating disorders among active component service members, 2017 to 2021.

Recommended Content:

Health Readiness & Combat Support | Public Health | Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

Seroepidemiologic Investigation of a COVID-19 Outbreak Aboard a U.S. Navy Ship

Article
12/1/2022
Cover 1

The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus, the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has been responsible for the largest respiratory illness pandemic since the influenza pandemic of 1918.

Recommended Content:

Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

Emergency Mental Health Care Utilization and the COVID-19 Pandemic Among U.S. Armed Forces and Dependents, 1 January 2017 to 31 March 2021

Article
12/1/2022
Cover 3

The COVID-19 pandemic brought with it concerns for the effects on mental health, from both the disease itself and the steps taken to combat it.

Recommended Content:

Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

Brief Review: Clinical and Epidemiologic Characteristics of Genital Skin Lesions Due to Infectious Causes

Article
12/1/2022
Brief Review: Clinical and Epidemiologic Characteristics of Genital Skin Lesions Due to Infectious Causes

During the current global mpox outbreak, many cases have presented atypically with skin lesions localized to the genital and perianal areas.

Recommended Content:

Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

MSMR Vol. 29 No. 12 - December 2022

Report
12/1/2022

A monthly publication of the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Division. This issue of the peer-reviewed journal contains the following articles: Surveillance trends for SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory pathogens among U.S. Military Health System Beneficiaries, Sept. 27, 2020 – Oct. 2,2021; Establishment of SARS-CoV-2 genomic surveillance within the MHS during March 1 – Dec. 31 2020; Suicide behavior among heterosexual, lesbian/gay, and bisexual active component service members in the U.S. Armed Forces; Brief report: Phase I results using the Virtual Pooled Registry Cancer Linkage system (VPR-CLS) for military cancer surveillance.

Recommended Content:

Health Readiness & Combat Support | Public Health | Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

MSMR Vol. 29 No. 11 - November 2022

Report
11/1/2022

A monthly publication of the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Division. This issue of the peer-reviewed journal contains the following articles: Surveillance trends for SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory pathogens among U.S. Military Health System Beneficiaries, Sept. 27, 2020 – Oct. 2,2021; Establishment of SARS-CoV-2 genomic surveillance within the MHS during March 1 – Dec. 31 2020; Suicide behavior among heterosexual, lesbian/gay, and bisexual active component service members in the U.S. Armed Forces; Brief report: Phase I results using the Virtual Pooled Registry Cancer Linkage system (VPR-CLS) for military cancer surveillance.

Recommended Content:

Health Readiness & Combat Support | Public Health | Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

Brief Report: Pediatric Vaccine Completion and Compliance Among Infants Born to Female Active Duty Service Members, 2006–2016

Article
11/1/2022
4

Rotavirus gastroenteritis is the leading cause of diarrhea-associated morbidity and mortality among children under age 5 worldwide.

Recommended Content:

Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

Update: Cold Injuries, Active and Reserve Components, U.S. Armed Forces, July 2017–June 2022

Article
11/1/2022
1

Cold injuries are of significant military concern because of their adverse impact on operations and the high financial costs of treatment and disability.

Recommended Content:

Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

In-Theater Mental Health Disorders Among U.S. Soldiers Deployed Between 2008 and 2013

Article
11/1/2022
3

Mental health is a significant concern within the U.S. military, and service members are at substantial risk for developing an array of mental health conditions including anxiety, depression, stress/adjustment issues, and sleep-related disorders.

Recommended Content:

Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

Surveillance Snapshot: Influenza Immunization Among U.S. Armed Forces Healthcare Workers, August 2017–April 2022

Article
10/1/2022
3

Immunization Among U.S. Armed Forces Healthcare Workers

Recommended Content:

Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

Viral hepatitis C, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2011–2020

Article
10/1/2022
1

This study reports updated numbers and incidence rates of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among active component members of the U.S. military using a revised case definition during a 10-year surveillance period between 2011 and 2020.

Recommended Content:

Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

Update: Contraception Among Active Component Service Women, U.S. Armed Forces, 2017–2021

Article
10/1/2022
2

This report summarizes the annual prevalence of permanent sterilization, as well as use of long- and short-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs and SARCs, respectively), contraceptive counseling services, and use of emergency contraceptives from 2017 through 2021 among active component U.S. service women.

Recommended Content:

Medical Surveillance Monthly Report
<< < 1 2 3 4 5  ... > >> 
Showing results 1 - 15 Page 1 of 14
Refine your search
Last Updated: October 26, 2022
Follow us on Instagram Follow us on LinkedIn Follow us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter Follow us on YouTube Sign up on GovDelivery