Skip main navigation

Military Health System

Clear Your Browser Cache

This website has recently undergone changes. Users finding unexpected concerns may care to clear their browser's cache to ensure a seamless experience.

Marines with combined anti-armor team conduct weapon familiarization training June 3 at the North Training Area at Combined Arms Training Center Camp Fuji. It was the first time for many of the Marines to fire the AT-4 light anti-armor weapon. The Marines are with the CAAT of Weapons Company, 3rd Battalion, 6th Marine Regiment, which is currently assigned to 4th Marine Regiment, 3rd Marine Division, III Marine Expeditionary Force, under the unit deployment program. The combat correspondent captured the photo at a shutter speed of 1/160th of a second, creating a multiple-exposure effect of the AT-4 gunner, as well as capturing the dust being shaken from the Marines’ helmets as a result of the shockwave created from the concussion of the weapon’s back-blast. (U.S. Marine Corps photo by Cpl. Adam B. Miller/Released)
Skip subpage navigation

Latent Long-Term Effects

A long-term effect of an injury is a consequence of the injurious exposure that presents symptoms at some point in the future. Long-term effects of a traumatic brain injury are difficult to pinpoint, but research suggests that there may be a link to the onset of several neurodegenerative diseases years after the TBI occurs. Whether mild or severe, all TBIs may increase the risk of latent neurodegenerative diseases, and can cause one or a combination of:

  • Foggy thinking.
  • Memory loss.
  • Trouble sleeping.
  • Anxiety.
  • Depression.
  • Personality changes.

Possible long-term neurodegenerative outcomes after TBIs:

  • Alzheimer's Disease.
  • Parkinson's Disease.
  • Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS).

There's existing evidence suggesting that pathological changes triggered by an earlier TBI may not actually cause Alzheimer's or Parkinson's, but may interfere with the brain's normal aging process and exacerbate the diseases.

TBI is one of the most complex brain disorders to understand, and one of the most difficult to treat. Ongoing research into the workings of TBI may help solve the many puzzles surrounding symptoms affecting hundreds of thousands of service members, and lead to more effective diagnosis, management, and treatment of the long-term effects of TBI.  

Last Updated: March 07, 2024
Follow us on Instagram Follow us on LinkedIn Follow us on Facebook Follow us on X Follow us on YouTube Sign up on GovDelivery