Back to Top Skip to main content

Absolute and relative morbidity burdens attributable to various illnesses and injuries, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2018

A U.S. naval officer listens through his stethoscope to hear his patient’s lungs at Camp Schwab in Okinawa, Japan in 2018. (Photo courtesy of U.S. Marine Corps) photo by Lance Cpl. Cameron Parks) A U.S. naval officer listens through his stethoscope to hear his patient’s lungs at Camp Schwab in Okinawa, Japan in 2018. (U.S. Marine Corps photo by Lance Cpl. Cameron Parks)

Recommended Content:

Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

WHAT ARE THE NEW FINDINGS?    

As in prior years, musculoskeletal disorders, injuries, mental health disorders, and pregnancy-related conditions accounted for relatively large proportions of the morbidity and healthcare burdens among active component service members. Injuries accounted for the largest percentage of medical encounters and individuals affected, and mental health disorders accounted for the largest number of hospital bed days.

WHAT IS THE IMPACT ON READINESS AND FORCE HEALTH PROTECTION?

Injuries, musculoskeletal disorders, and mental health disorders are major detractors from service members’ individual readiness and deployability and can lead to early separation and disability. Reducing their impact on force readiness can be accomplished through enhanced measures to prevent and treat the occurrence of such disorders.

BACKGROUND

Perceptions of the relative importance of various health conditions in military populations often determine the natures, extents, and priorities for resources applied to primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention activities. However, these perceptions are inherently subjective and may not reflect objective measures of the relationship between the conditions and their impact on health, fitness, military operational effectiveness, healthcare costs, and so on.

Several classification systems and morbidity measures have been developed to quantify the “public health burdens” that are attributable to various illnesses and injuries in defined populations and settings.1 Not surprisingly, different classification systems and morbidity measures lead to different rankings of illness- and injury-specific public health burdens.2

For example, in a given population and setting, the illnesses and injuries that account for the most hospitalizations are likely different from those that account for the most outpatient medical encounters. The illnesses and injuries that account for the most medical encounters overall may differ from those that affect the most individuals, have the most debilitating or long-lasting effects, and so on.2 Thus, in a given population and setting, the classification system or measure used to quantify condition-specific morbidity burdens shapes to a large extent the conclusions that may be drawn regarding the relative importance of various conditions and, in turn, the resources that may be indicated to prevent or minimize their impacts.

This annual summary uses a standard disease classification system (modified for use among U.S. military members) and several healthcare burden measures to quantify the impacts of various illnesses and injuries among members of the active component of the U.S. Armed Forces in 2018.

METHODS

The surveillance period was 1 January through 31 December 2018. The surveillance population included all individuals who served in the active component of the U.S. Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps at any time during the surveillance period. All data used in this analysis were derived from records routinely maintained in the Defense Medical Surveillance System (DMSS). These records document both ambulatory encounters and hospitalizations of active component members of the U.S. Armed Forces in fixed military and civilian (if reimbursed through the Military Health System [MHS]) treatment facilities worldwide.

For this analysis, DMSS data for all inpatient and outpatient medical encounters of all active component members during 2018 were summarized according to the primary (first-listed) diagnosis (if reported with an International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification [ICD-10-CM] code between A00 and T88, an ICD-10 code beginning with Z37, or Department of Defense [DoD] unique personal history codes DOD0101–DOD0105). For summary purposes, all illness- and injury-specific diagnoses (as defined by the ICD-10) were grouped into 142 burden of disease-related conditions and 25 categories based on a modified version of the classification system developed for the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study.1 In general, the GBD system groups diagnoses with common pathophysiologic or etiologic bases and/or significant international health policymaking importance. In this analysis, some diagnoses that are grouped into single categories in the GBD system (e.g., mental health disorders) were disaggregated to increase the military relevance of the results. Also, injuries were categorized by affected anatomic site rather than by cause because external causes of injuries are incompletely reported in military outpatient records.

The “morbidity burdens” attributable to various “conditions” were estimated based on the total number of medical encounters attributable to each condition (i.e., total hospitalizations and ambulatory visits for the condition with a limit of 1 encounter per individual per condition per day), numbers of service members affected by each condition (i.e., individuals with at least 1 medical encounter for the condition during the year), and total bed days during hospitalizations for each condition.

The new electronic health record for the MHS, MHS GENESIS, was implemented at several military treatment facilities during 2017. Medical data from sites that are using MHS GENESIS are not available in DMSS. These sites include Naval Hospital Oak Harbor, Naval Hospital Bremerton, Air Force Medical Services Fairchild, and Madigan Army Medical Center. Therefore, medical encounters for individuals seeking care at any of these facilities during 2018 were not included in this analysis.

RESULTS

Morbidity burden, by category

In 2018, more service members (n=522,854) received medical care for injury/poisoning than any other morbidity-related category (Figures 1a, 1b). In addition, injury/poisoning accounted for more medical encounters (n=2,703,799) than any other morbidity category and one-quarter (25.4%) of all medical encounters overall.

Mental health disorders accounted for more hospital bed days (n=163,652) than any other morbidity category and 48.9% of all hospital bed days overall (Figures 1a, 1b). Together, injury/poisoning and mental health disorders accounted for nearly three-fifths (59.9%) of all hospital bed days and more than two-fifths (41.9%) of all medical encounters.

Of note, maternal conditions (including pregnancy complications and delivery) accounted for a relatively large proportion of all hospital bed days (n=52,939; 15.8%) but a much smaller proportion of medical encounters overall (n=174,185; 1.6%) (Figures 1a, 1b). Routine prenatal visits are not included in this summary.

Medical encounters, by condition

In 2018, the 3 burden of disease-related conditions that accounted for the most medical encounters (i.e., other back problems, all other musculoskeletal diseases, and knee injuries) accounted for almost one-quarter (24.5%) of all illness- and injury-related medical encounters overall (Figure 2). Moreover, the 9 conditions that accounted for the most medical encounters were responsible for more than half (53.0%) of all illness- and injury-related medical encounters overall. In general, the conditions that accounted for the most medical encounters were predominantly musculoskeletal disorders (e.g., back problems), anatomic site-defined injuries (e.g., injuries of the knee, arm/shoulder, or foot/ankle), and mental health disorders (e.g., adjustment disorders, anxiety disorders, or mood disorders) (Table, Figure 2).

Individuals affected, by condition

In 2018, more service members received medical care for "all other musculoskeletal diseases" than for any other specific condition (Table). Of the 10 conditions that affected the most service members, 3 were anatomic site-defined injuries (injuries of the knee, foot/ankle, and arm/shoulder), 2 were musculoskeletal diseases (all other musculoskeletal diseases and other back problems), 2 were signs and symptoms (all other signs and symptoms and abdomen and pelvis), 1 was a respiratory infection-related condition (upper respiratory infections), 1 was a sense organ disease (refraction/accommodation), and 1 was a skin disease-related condition (all other skin diseases).

Hospital bed days, by condition

In 2018, mood and substance abuse disorders accounted for more than one-quarter (29.3%) of all hospital bed days. Together, 4 mental health disorders (mood, substance abuse, adjustment, and anxiety) and 2 maternal conditions (pregnancy complications and delivery) accounted for more than half (58.8%) of all hospital bed days (Table, Figure 3). Approximately one-ninth (11.1%) of all hospital bed days were attributable to injuries and poisonings.

Relationships between healthcare burden indicators

There was a strong positive correlation between the number of medical encounters attributable to various conditions and the number of individuals affected by the conditions (r=0.86) (data not shown). For example, the 3 leading causes of medical encounters were among the 5 conditions that affected the most individuals (Table). In contrast, there were weak to moderate positive relationships between the hospital bed days attributable to conditions and either the numbers of individuals affected by (r=0.17) or medical encounters attributable to (r=0.36) the same conditions (data not shown). For example, labor and delivery and substance abuse disorders were among the top-ranking conditions in terms of proportion of total hospital bed days; however, these conditions affected relatively few service members.

EDITORIAL COMMENT

This report reiterates the major findings of prior annual reports on morbidity and healthcare burdens among U.S. military members. In particular, this report documents that a majority of the morbidity and healthcare burdens that affect active component U.S. military members are attributable to just 6.3% of the 142 burden of disease-defining conditions considered in the analysis.

In 2018, as in prior years, musculoskeletal disorders (particularly of the back), injuries (particularly of the knee and arm/shoulder), mental health disorders (particularly adjustment, anxiety, substance abuse, and mood disorders), and pregnancy- and delivery-related conditions accounted for relatively large proportions of the morbidity and healthcare burdens that affected active component service members. Nine burden of disease-related conditions accounted for slightly more than half of all illness- and injury-related medical encounters of active component members and included 2 mental health disorders (adjustment and anxiety disorders), 3 anatomic site-defined injuries (knee, arm/shoulder, and foot/ankle), 2 musculoskeletal conditions (other back problems and all other musculoskeletal diseases), organic sleep disorders, and all other signs and symptoms.

It should be noted that this annual summary for 2018 was based on the use of ICD-10 codes exclusively. This is the third MSMR burden report that did not use ICD-9 codes. Because of some of the differences between the 2 generations of coding (e.g., compared to ICD-9, ICD-10 has more than 4 times as many codes, often allows for much greater specificity of diagnoses, and has added and deleted some specific diagnoses or terminology), direct comparisons of the counts for 2018 with those from years before 2016 should be interpreted with caution. Dramatic changes in counts and rankings for specific categories or conditions may reflect changes in incidence or prevalence, the effects of a different coding system, the adjustment of healthcare providers to the new coding system, or combinations of all 3.

Mental health disorders (including substance abuse disorders), injuries, and musculoskeletal disorders of the back have been leading causes of morbidity and disability among service members throughout military history.3–8 It is well recognized that the prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation of back problems and joint injuries, and the detection, characterization, and management of mental health disorders—including substance abuse and deployment stress-related disorders (e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder)—should be the highest priorities for military medical research, public health, and force health protection programs.

In summary, this analysis, like those of prior years, documents that relatively few illnesses and injuries account for most of the morbidity and healthcare burdens that affect U.S. military members. Illnesses and injuries that disproportionately contribute to morbidity and healthcare burdens should be high-priority targets for prevention research and resources.

REFERENCES

1. Murray CJL, Lopez AD, eds. The Global Burden of Disease: A Comprehensive Assessment of Mortality and Disability from Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors in 1990 and Projected to 2020. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1996:120–122.

2. Brundage JF, Johnson KE, Lange JL, Rubertone MV. Comparing the population health impacts of medical conditions using routinely collected health care utilization data: nature and sources of variability. Mil Med. 2006;171(10):937–942.

3. Jones BH, Perrotta DM, Canham-Chervak ML, Nee MA, Brundage JF. Injuries in the military: a review and commentary focused on prevention. Am J Prev Med. 2000;18(3 suppl):71–84.

4. Ritchie EC, Benedek D, Malone R, Carr-Malone R. Psychiatry and the military: an update. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2006;29(3):695–707.

5. Stahlman S, Oetting AA. Mental health disorders and mental health problems, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2007–2016. MSMR. 2018;25(3):2–11.

6. Cozza KL, Hales RE. Psychiatry in the Army: a brief historical perspective and current developments. Hosp Community Psychiatry. 1991;42(4):413–418.

7. Watanabe HK, Harig PT, Rock NL, Koshes RJ. Alcohol and drug abuse and dependence. In: Jones FD, Sparcino LR, Wilcox VL, Rotherberg JM, eds. Military Psychiatry: Preparing in Peace for War. Part I of Textbook of Military Medicine Series. Washington, DC: Office of the Surgeon General, Department of the Army. Borden Institute; 1994.https://ke.army.mil/bordeninstitute/published_volumes/military_psychiatry/MPch5.pdf. Accessed 2 April 2019.

8. Army Medical Surveillance Activity. Relative burdens of selected illnesses and injuries, U.S. Armed Forces, 2001. MSMR. 2002;8(2):24–28.

CE/CME

This activity offers continuing education (CE) and continuing medical education (CME) to qualified professionals, as well as a certificate of participation to those desiring documentation. For more information, go to www.health.mil/msmrce.

Key points

• In 2018, more service members received medical care for injury/poisoning than for any other morbidity-related category, and injury/poisoning accounted for one-quarter of all medical encounters overall.

• Musculoskeletal disorders, injuries, mental health disorders, and pregnancy- and delivery-related conditions accounted for relatively large proportions of the morbidity and healthcare burdens that affected active component service members in 2018.

• This analysis, like those of prior years, documents that relatively few illnesses and injuries account for most of the morbidity and healthcare burdens that affect U.S. military members.

Learning objectives

• The reader will explain how the comparative burden of disease among active component service members can be evaluated and estimated.

• The reader will analyze the rankings of the various burden of disease-related conditions in terms of the number of medical encounters, individuals affected, and hospital bed days for active component service members in 2018.

• The reader will describe the relationships between the 3 healthcare burden indicators for active component service members in 2018.

Disclosures: MSMR editorial staff engage in a monthly collaboration with the DHA J7 Continuing Education Program Office (CEPO) to provide this CE/CME activity. MSMR staff authors, the DHA J7 CEPO, as well as the planners and reviewers of this activity have no financial or nonfinancial interest to disclose.

Numbers of medical encounters,a individuals affected,b and hospital bed days, by burden of disease major category,c active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2018

Percentages of medical encounters,a and hospital bed days, attributable to burden of disease major categories,b active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2018

Percentage and cumulative percentage distribution, burden of disease-related conditionsa that accounted for the most medical encounters, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2018

Percentage and cumulative percentage distribution, burden of disease-related conditionsa that accounted for the most hospital bed days, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2018

Health care burdens attributable to various diseases and injuries, U.S. Armed Forces, 2018Health care burdens attributable to various diseases and injuries, U.S. Armed Forces, 2018Health care burdens attributable to various diseases and injuries, U.S. Armed Forces, 2018

Health care burdens attributable to various diseases and injuries, U.S. Armed Forces, 2018

You also may be interested in...

Vasectomy

Infographic
3/20/2019
Vasectomy

There are few published studies of vasectomy and vasectomy reversal among the U.S. military population. To address these gaps, the current analysis describes the overall and annual incidence rates of vasectomy among active component service men during 2000–2017 by demographic and military characteristics and by type of surgical vas isolation procedure used. In addition, the median age at incident vasectomy and the time between incident vasectomy and first vasectomy reversal are described.

Recommended Content:

Health Readiness | Armed Forces Health Surveillance Branch | Epidemiology and Analysis | Medical Surveillance Monthly Report | Public Health

Male Infertility

Infographic
3/20/2019
Male Infertility

The current report updates and expands on the findings of the previous MSMR analysis of infertility among active component service men. Specifically, the current report summarizes the frequencies, rates, temporal trends, types of infertility, and demographic and military characteristics of infertility among active component service men during 2013–2017.

Recommended Content:

Health Readiness | Armed Forces Health Surveillance Branch | Epidemiology and Analysis | Medical Surveillance Monthly Report | Public Health

Brief Report: Male Infertility, Active Component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2013–2017

Article
3/1/2019
Sperm is the male reproductive cell  Photo: iStock

Infertility, defined as the inability to achieve a successful pregnancy after 1 year or more of unprotected sexual intercourse or therapeutic donor insemination, affects approximately 15% of all couples. Male infertility is diagnosed when, after testing both partners, reproductive problems have been found in the male. A male factor contributes in part or whole to about 50% of cases of infertility. However, determining the true prevalence of male infertility remains elusive, as most estimates are derived from couples seeking assistive reproductive technology in tertiary care or referral centers, population-based surveys, or high-risk occupational cohorts, all of which are likely to underestimate the prevalence of the condition in the general U.S. population.

Recommended Content:

Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

Vasectomy and Vasectomy Reversals, Active Component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2000–2017

Article
3/1/2019
Sperm is the male reproductive cell  Photo: iStock

During 2000–2017, a total of 170,878 active component service members underwent a first-occurring vasectomy, for a crude overall incidence rate of 8.6 cases per 1,000 person-years (p-yrs). Among the men who underwent incident vasectomy, 2.2% had another vasectomy performed during the surveillance period. Compared to their respective counterparts, the overall rates of vasectomy were highest among service men aged 30–39 years, non-Hispanic whites, married men, and those in pilot/air crew occupations. Male Air Force members had the highest overall incidence of vasectomy and men in the Marine Corps, the lowest. Crude annual vasectomy rates among service men increased slightly between 2000 and 2017. The largest increases in rates over the 18-year period occurred among service men aged 35–49 years and among men working as pilots/air crew. Among those who underwent vasectomy, 1.8% also had at least 1 vasectomy reversal during the surveillance period. The likelihood of vasectomy reversal decreased with advancing age. Non-Hispanic black and Hispanic service men were more likely than those of other race/ethnicity groups to undergo vasectomy reversals.

Recommended Content:

Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

Testosterone Replacement Therapy Use Among Active Component Service Men, 2017

Article
3/1/2019
Anopheles merus

This analysis summarizes the prevalence of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) during 2017 among active component service men by demographic and military characteristics. This analysis also determines the percentage of those receiving TRT in 2017 who had an indication for receiving TRT using the 2018 American Urological Association (AUA) clinical practice guidelines. In 2017, 5,093 of 1,076,633 active component service men filled a prescription for TRT, for a period prevalence of 4.7 per 1,000 male service members. After adjustment for covariates, the prevalence of TRT use remained highest among Army members, senior enlisted members, warrant officers, non-Hispanic whites, American Indians/Alaska Natives, those in combat arms occupations, healthcare workers, those who were married, and those with other/unknown marital status. Among active component male service members who received TRT in 2017, only 44.5% met the 2018 AUA clinical practice guidelines for receiving TRT.

Recommended Content:

Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

Sexually Transmitted Infections, Active Component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2010–2018

Article
3/1/2019
Anopheles merus

This report summarizes incidence rates of the 5 most common sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among active component service members of the U.S. Armed Forces during 2010–2018. Infections with chlamydia were the most common, followed in decreasing order of frequency by infections with genital human papillomavirus (HPV), gonorrhea, genital herpes simplex virus (HSV), and syphilis. Compared to men, women had higher rates of all STIs except for syphilis. In general, compared to their respective counterparts, younger service members, non-Hispanic blacks, soldiers, and enlisted members had higher incidence rates of STIs. During the latter half of the surveillance period, the incidence of chlamydia and gonorrhea increased among both male and female service members. Rates of syphilis increased for male service members but remained relatively stable among female service members. In contrast, the incidence of genital HPV and HSV decreased among both male and female service members. Similarities to and differences from the findings of the last MSMR update on STIs are discussed.

Recommended Content:

Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

Adenovirus

Infographic
3/1/2019
Adenovirus

During August–September 2016, U.S. Naval Academy clinical staff noted an increase in students presenting with acute respiratory illness (ARI). An investigation was conducted to determine the extent and cause of the outbreak.

Recommended Content:

Health Readiness | Armed Forces Health Surveillance Branch | Epidemiology and Analysis | Medical Surveillance Monthly Report | Public Health

Malaria

Infographic
3/1/2019
Malaria

Since 1999, the Medical Surveillance Monthly Report has published regular updates on the incidence of malaria among U.S. service members. The MSMR’s focus on malaria reflects both historical lessons learned about this mosquito-borne disease and the continuing threat that it poses to military operations and service members’ health.

Recommended Content:

Health Readiness | Armed Forces Health Surveillance Branch | Epidemiology and Analysis | Medical Surveillance Monthly Report | Public Health

Glaucoma

Infographic
3/1/2019
Glaucoma

This report describes an analysis using the Defense Medical Surveillance System to identify all active component service members with an incident diagnosis of glaucoma during the period between 2013 and 2017.

Recommended Content:

Health Readiness | Armed Forces Health Surveillance Branch | Epidemiology and Analysis | Medical Surveillance Monthly Report | Public Health

Update: Incidence of Glaucoma Diagnoses, Active Component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2013–2017

Article
2/1/2019
Glaucoma

Glaucoma is an eye disease that involves progressive optic nerve damage and vision loss, leading to blindness if undetected or untreated. This report describes an analysis using the Defense Medical Surveillance System to identify all active component service members with an incident diagnosis of glaucoma during the period between 2013 and 2017. The analysis identified 37,718 incident cases of glaucoma and an overall incidence rate of 5.9 cases per 1,000 person-years (p-yrs). The majority of cases (97.6%) were diagnosed at an early stage as borderline glaucoma; of these borderline cases, 2.2% progressed to open-angle glaucoma during the study period. No incident cases of absolute glaucoma, or total blindness, were identified. Rates of glaucoma were higher among non-Hispanic black (11.0 per 1,000 p-yrs), Asian/Pacific Islander (9.5), and Hispanic (6.9) service members, compared with non-Hispanic white (4.0) service members. Rates among female service members (6.6 per 1,000 p-yrs) were higher than those among male service members (5.8). Between 2013 and 2017, incidence rates of glaucoma diagnoses increased by 75.4% among all service members.

Recommended Content:

Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

Update: Malaria, U.S. Armed Forces, 2018

Article
2/1/2019
Anopheles merus

Malaria infection remains an important health threat to U.S. service mem­bers who are located in endemic areas because of long-term duty assign­ments, participation in shorter-term contingency operations, or personal travel. In 2018, a total of 58 service members were diagnosed with or reported to have malaria. This represents a 65.7% increase from the 35 cases identi­fied in 2017. The relatively low numbers of cases during 2012–2018 mainly reflect decreases in cases acquired in Afghanistan, a reduction due largely to the progressive withdrawal of U.S. forces from that country. The percentage of cases of malaria caused by unspecified agents (63.8%; n=37) in 2018 was the highest during any given year of the surveillance period. The percent­age of cases identified as having been caused by Plasmodium vivax (10.3%; n=6) in 2018 was the lowest observed during the 10-year surveillance period. The percentage of malaria cases attributed to P. falciparum (25.9 %) in 2018 was similar to that observed in 2017 (25.7%), although the number of cases increased. Malaria was diagnosed at or reported from 31 different medical facilities in the U.S., Afghanistan, Italy, Germany, Djibouti, and Korea. Pro­viders of medical care to military members should be knowledgeable of and vigilant for clinical manifestations of malaria outside of endemic areas.

Recommended Content:

Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

Outbreak of Acute Respiratory Illness Associated with Adenovirus Type 4 at the U.S. Naval Academy, 2016

Article
2/1/2019
Malaria case definition

Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are known to cause respiratory illness outbreaks at basic military training (BMT) sites. HAdV type-4 and -7 vaccines are routinely administered at enlisted BMT sites, but not at military academies. During August–September 2016, U.S. Naval Academy clinical staff noted an increase in students presenting with acute respiratory illness (ARI). An investigation was conducted to determine the extent and cause of the outbreak. During 22 August–11 September 2016, 652 clinic visits for ARI were identified using electronic health records. HAdV-4 was confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction assay in 18 out of 33 patient specimens collected and 1 additional HAdV case was detected from hospital records. Two HAdV-4 positive patients were treated for pneumonia including 1 hospitalized patient. Molecular analysis of 4 HAdV-4 isolates identified genome type 4a1, which is considered vaccine-preventable. Understanding the impact of HAdV in congregate settings other than enlisted BMT sites is necessary to inform discussions regarding future HAdV vaccine strategy.

Recommended Content:

Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

Re-evaluation of the MSMR Case Definition for Incident Cases of Malaria

Article
2/1/2019
Anopheles merus

The MSMR has been publishing the results of surveillance studies of malaria since 1995. The standard MSMR case definition uses Medical Event Reports and records of hospitalizations in counting cases of malaria. This report summarizes the performance of the standard MSMR case definition in estimating incident cases of malaria from 2015 through 2017. Also explored was the potential surveillance value of including outpatient encounters with diagnoses of malaria or positive laboratory tests for malaria in the case definition. The study corroborated the relative accuracy of the MSMR case definition in estimating malaria incidence and provided the basis for updating the case definition in 2019 to include positive laboratory tests for malaria antigen within 30 days of an outpatient diagnosis.

Recommended Content:

Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

Infographic
1/29/2019
HPV

At the time of this report, there were no published studies of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) incidence over time among active component U.S. military personnel. Examining the incidence rates of NAFLD and their temporal trends among active component U.S. military members can provide insights into the future burden of NAFLD on the MHS.

Recommended Content:

Health Readiness | Armed Forces Health Surveillance Branch | Epidemiology and Analysis | Medical Surveillance Monthly Report | Public Health

Acute Flaccid Myelitis Case Reporting

Infographic
1/29/2019
Acute Flaccid Myelitis Case Reporting

This case highlights important clinical characteristics of acute flaccid myelitis and emphasizes the importance of including AFM in the differential diagnosis when evaluating active duty service members and Military Health System beneficiaries presenting with paralysis.

Recommended Content:

Health Readiness | Armed Forces Health Surveillance Branch | Epidemiology and Analysis | Medical Surveillance Monthly Report | Public Health
<< < 1 2 3 4 5  ... > >> 
Showing results 31 - 45 Page 3 of 7

DHA Address: 7700 Arlington Boulevard | Suite 5101 | Falls Church, VA | 22042-5101

Some documents are presented in Portable Document Format (PDF). A PDF reader is required for viewing. Download a PDF Reader or learn more about PDFs.