Back to Top Skip to main content Skip to sub-navigation

Brief Report: Direct Care Cost of Heat Illness to the Army, 2016–2018

Thermometer (Photo credit: U.S. Army) Thermometer (Photo credit: U.S. Army)

Recommended Content:

Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

BACKGROUND

Heat injury surveillance in the Department of Defense (DoD) includes the more severe conditions, heat exhaustion and heat stroke.1 Hospitalization occurs more frequently among service members experiencing heat stroke; however, both conditions can result in hospitalization and may require follow-up medical care. Between 2014 and 2018, annual rates of heat illness have increased among U.S. active component members.This report describes the total direct medical cost to the Army associated with heat exhaustion and heat stroke from 2016 through 2018.

METHODS

The Weather-Related Injury Repository (WRIR) contains clinical data and medical event reports for heat and cold weather injuries in Army soldiers.3 The WRIR health encounter and admission data used in this analysis were derived from DoD military medical treatment facility medical records and paid TRICARE claims for beneficiaries at civilian facilities. Heat illness was identified using International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10) codes for heat stroke (T67.0*) and heat exhaustion (T67.3*, T67.4*, T67.5*) in the primary or secondary diagnostic code positions.1For the purposes of this study, heat illness hospital admissions and outpatient encounters from 1 January 2016 through 31 December 2018 were extracted from the WRIR for Army active component and active and inactive National Guard and Reserve soldiers. Demographic characteristics were assigned according to the first encounter or admission during the analysis timeframe for each soldier.

Direct medical costs from the medical record and claims files were used to represent the cost of care paid for by the Military Health System (MHS). Variables for these costs have been included in the WRIR for each encounter since its implementation. For inpatient admissions to facilities owned and operated by the military, the direct cost of the care is captured in a variable identified as “full cost,” which includes the cost of clinician salary, ancillary laboratory and radiology, ancillary salary, and intensive and surgical care units. For outpatient visits associated with these facilities, the direct cost of care captured in the same full cost variable includes clinician salary, professional salary, laboratory, radiology, pharmacy, ancillary, support, and other costs. For contracted care provided in civilian or network facilities, the direct medical cost represents the amount paid by TRICARE. This variable, tracked in the patient’s medical record, has been used to estimate the total cost of each medical encounter in other reports evaluating medical costs for soldiers in the MHS.4–6

To determine the total direct medical cost, all hospital admission and outpatient encounter records with a heat exhaustion or heat stroke diagnosis meeting inclusion criteria were examined and the full cost and/or total amount paid for each heat illness encounter were summed by soldier and the date of care. Total direct medical care cost includes the cost of care associated with follow-up visits. The heat illness type was assigned based on the ICD-10 code in the primary or secondary position. The record was designated a heat stroke when either of the fields had a heat stroke diagnosis. Data were reported by clinical setting (outpatient and inpatient) and by heat illness type (heat exhaustion and heat stroke).

RESULTS

During the study period, 5,291 soldiers—1,027 (19.4%) females and 4,264 (80.6%) males—had 1 or more clinical records associated with heat stroke or heat exhaustion events (Table 1). The majority were enlisted soldiers (88.1%) and younger than 35 years old (90.8%). Of the soldiers who received care for a heat illness, 1 in 4 were members of the National Guard/Reserve.

The 5,291 soldiers had 13,087 records of encounters for heat illnesses that resulted in an average of 2.5 medical encounters per soldier (Table 2). The majority of the soldiers’ records indicated heat exhaustion diagnoses (69.3%), of which 98.0% were recorded during outpatient encounters. Similarly, 91.4% of heat stroke diagnoses were made during outpatient encounters. The number of heat stroke admissions was nearly double that of heat exhaustion; the number of hospital bed days associated with heat stroke admissions (786 bed days) was 3 times the number associated with heat exhaustion admissions (263 bed days) (data not shown).

The total Direct CareDirect care refers to military hospitals and clinics, also known as “military treatment facilities” and “MTFs.”direct care cost to the Army for heat stroke and heat exhaustion encounters was $7.3 million, or $559 per encounter. Even though approximately 70% of the medical encounters were related to heat exhaustion, cost was almost evenly divided between heat exhaustion and heat stroke encounters ($3.7 million and $3.6 million, respectively). The total cost of outpatient encounters was approximately 20% higher than the cost of inpatient admissions ($3.9 million and $3.3 million, respectively). An inpatient heat stroke encounter ($7,453/encounter) was more than 10-fold as costly as the aggregate cost per encounter ($559/encounter).

EDITORIAL COMMENT

This is the first report in the literature summarizing the direct medical costs associated with heat illness diagnoses among U.S. Army soldiers. A major strength of this study is its inclusion of all active Army and active and inactive National Guard/Reserve soldiers diagnosed with heat illnesses in outpatient and inpatient settings at both military treatment and civilian facilities. For example, in 2015, DeGroot and colleagues7 found an overall treatment cost of $408,074 for heat injuries occurring among 128 of the 10,580 soldiers attending Army Ranger School, which is held at 1 military installation. The DeGroot and colleagues study, which included only Army Ranger trainees, found that the cost per encounter for heat exhaustion treated at the Ranger aid station ranged from $176 to $216 per encounter. The authors estimated that the cost per encounter ranged from $3,024 to $4,327 for heat exhaustion treated but not admitted to a hospital (outpatient), while the cost of an encounter for heat stroke, as indicated by a hospital admission (inpatient), ranged from $5,000 to $6,878 per encounter.7 Using more precise encounter and hospitalization data from 5,291 U.S. Army soldiers with a heat injury over a 3-year period, the current study found a total direct care cost of $7,321,719 for heat injuries. The cost per encounter was $410 for heat exhaustion and $897 per heat stroke encounter.

Direct medical costs are only a portion of the total cost associated with heat illness. Indirect costs of illness account for costs associated with absenteeism, lost productivity, and decreased performance.8–10 In the military, there are lost productivity costs to the Army in the form of 1) lost duty days (or absenteeism), where the soldier is paid but is not able to perform the relevant duties because of health-related reasons, such as hospitalization, and 2) limited duty days, in which a soldier performs the relevant duties but at diminished capacity following an illness or injury.4,6 This analysis notes a total of 1,049 bed days (or lost duty days) due to heat illness diagnoses. Based on average soldier pay for the study timeframe and assuming the loss of 8 hours per day, these lost duty days total $356,000 in lost cost to the Army.

While data for medical profiles associated with heat illness were not available, the indirect costs of the lost and limited duty time associated with medical profiles have been estimated at almost 80% of the total cost of other injuries.4,6 If we assume this cost ratio for heat illness, indirect costs could reach $36 million. A future analysis should incorporate lost and/or limited duty heat illness profile data in order to provide a better estimate of the total cost of these conditions to the Army.

There were 2 main limitations to the study. The surveillance period for this report covered the period 1 January 2016 through 31 December 2018, so it is possible that some initial costs occurring before January 2016 and some follow-up and sequelae visits occurring after December 2018 were not accounted for in the full care cost for each heat illness event. Additionally, the cost assigned by the MHS to heat injury as a primary diagnosis reflects the intensity and complexity of care for other illnesses or injuries (e.g., gastroenteritis, stress fracture) that may be present at the time of the encounter.11

Author affiliations: Armed Forces Health Surveillance Branch, Silver Spring, MD (Dr. Forrest, Dr. Maule, Ms. McCabe, Ms. Kebisek, Mr. Steelman, and Dr. Ambrose).

Disclaimer: The contents, views, or opinions expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of the Defense Health Agency or the Department of Defense.

REFERENCES

1. Armed Forces Health Surveillance Branch. Surveillance Case Definition. Heat illness. https://health.mil/Reference-Center/Publications/2019/10/01/Heat-Injuries. Accessed 20 February 2020.

2. Armed Forces Health Surveillance Branch. Update: Heat injures, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2018. MSMR. 2019;26(4):15–20.

3. Barnes SR, Ambrose JF, Maule AL, et al. Incidence, timing, and seasonal patterns of heat illnesses during U.S. Army basic combat training, 2014–2018. MSMR. 2019;26(4):7–14.

4. Hauschild VD, Lee T, Barnes S, Forrest L, Hauret K, Jones BH. The etiology of injuries in US Army initial entry training. US Army Med Dep J. 2018;(2-18):22–29.

5. Bulzacchelli MT, Sulsky SI, Zhu L, Brandt S, Barenberg A. The cost of basic training injuries in the U.S. Army: injury-related medical care and risk factors. Final Technical Report. Fort Belvoir, VA: Defense Technical Information Center.

6. Hauschild VD, Forrest LJ, Hirleman C, Pinyan EC, Grier T, Jones BH. Pectoralis major injuries in the Army, CY 2016 active duty Army. APHC PHIP No. 12-03-0719. Public Health Information Paper. Fort Belvoir, VA: Defense Technical Information Center.

7. DeGroot DW, Kenefick RW, Sawka MN. Impact of arm immersion cooling during Ranger training on exertional heat illness and treatment costs. Mil Med. 2015;180(11):1178–1183.

8. Johns G. Presenteeism in the workplace: a review and research agenda. J Organ Behav. 2010;31(4):519–542.

9. Mitchell RJ, Bates P. Measuring health-related productivity loss. Popul Health Manag. 2011;14(2):93–98.

10. Rice DP, Hodgson TA, Kopstein AN. The economic costs of illness: a replication and update. Health Care Financ Rev. 1985;7(1):61–80.

11. Defense Health Agency. Uniform Business Office User Guide. May 2018. https://health.mil/Reference-Center/Reports/2018/09/27/DHA-UBO-User-Guide-May-2018. Accessed 14 April 2020.

TABLE 1. Demographic and military characteristics of soldiers with heat illness encounters, U.S. Army, 2016–2018

TABLE 2. Medical encounters and direct care costs associated with heat illness, U.S. Army, 2016–2018

You also may be interested in...

Cardiovascular Diseases

Infographic
4/4/2018
At the time of entry into military service, many members of the U.S. Armed Forces are young, physically active, and in good physical health. However, following entry, many service members develop or are discovered to have risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This report documents the incidence and prevalence of select risk factors for CVD among active component (AC) service members and provides estimates of the incidence rates of major categories of cardiovascular diseases themselves.

At the time of entry into military service, many members of the U.S. Armed Forces are young, physically active, and in good physical health. However, following entry, many service members develop or are discovered to have risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This report documents the incidence and prevalence of select risk factors for CVD among active component (AC) service members and provides estimates of the incidence rates of major categories of cardiovascular diseases themselves.

Recommended Content:

Health Readiness | Epidemiology and Analysis | Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

Mental Health Problems

Infographic
4/4/2018
This report summarizes the numbers, natures, and rates of incident mental health disorder diagnoses as well as mental health problems among active component U.S. service members during 2007–2016.

This report summarizes the numbers, natures, and rates of incident mental health disorder diagnoses as well as mental health problems among active component U.S. service members during 2007–2016.

Recommended Content:

Health Readiness | Armed Forces Health Surveillance Branch | Epidemiology and Analysis | Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

Surveillance for Vector-Borne Diseases, Active and Reserve Component Service Members, U.S. Armed Forces, 2010 – 2016

Infographic
2/14/2018
Within the U.S. Armed Forces considerable effort has been applied to the prevention and treatment of vector-borne diseases. A key component of that effort has been the surveillance of vector-borne diseases to inform the steps needed to identify where and when threats exist and to evaluate the impact of preventive measures. This report summarizes available health records information about the occurrence of vector-borne infectious diseases among members of the U.S. Armed Forces, during a recent 7-year surveillance period. For the 7-surveillance period, there were 1,436 confirmed cases of vector-borne diseases, 536 possible cases, and 8,667 suspected cases among service members of the active and reserve components. •	“Confirmed” case = confirmed reportable medical event. •	“Possible” case = hospitalization with a diagnosis for a vector-borne disease. •	“Suspected” case = either a non-confirmed reportable medical event or an outpatient medical encounter with a diagnosis of a vector-borne disease. Lyme disease (n=721) and malaria (n=346) were the most common diagnoses among confirmed and possible cases. •	In 2015, the annual numbers of confirmed case of Lyme disease were the fewest reported during the surveillance period. •	Diagnoses of Chikungunya (CHIK) and Zika (ZIKV) were elevated in the years following their respective entries into the Western Hemisphere: CHIK (2014 and 2015); ZIKV (2016). The available data reinforce the need for continued emphasis on the multidisciplinary preventive measures necessary to counter the ever-present threat of vector-borne disease. Access the full report in the February 2018 MSMR (Vol. 25, No. 2). Go to www.Health.mil/MSMR  Background graphic shows service member in the field and insects which spread vector borne diseases.

This infographic summarizes available health records information about the occurrence of vector-borne infectious diseases among members of the U.S. Armed Forces, during a recent 7-year surveillance period (2010 – 2016).

Recommended Content:

Health Readiness | Epidemiology and Analysis | Medical Surveillance Monthly Report | Preventing Mosquito-Borne Illnesses | Chikungunya | Malaria | Zika Virus | Bug-Borne Illnesses

Malaria U.S. Armed Forces, 2017

Infographic
2/14/2018
Since 1999, the Medical Surveillance Monthly Report (MSMR) has published periodic updates on the incidence of malaria among U.S. service members. Malaria infection remains an important health threat to U.S. service members, who are located in endemic areas because of long-term duty assignments, participation in shorter-term contingency operations, or personal travel. This update for 2017 describes the epidemiologic patterns of malaria incidence in active and reserve component service members of the U.S. Armed Forces. Findings •	A total of 32 service members were diagnosed with or reported to have malaria, which is the lowest number of cases in any given year during the 10-year surveillance period. •	Health records documented the performance of laboratory tests for malaria for 22 of the cases. The tests for 17 of the 22 were positive for malaria ( stick figure graphic visually depicts this information). •	In 2017, 75.0% (24 of 32) of malaria cases among U.S. service members were diagnosed during May – October (calendar graphic showing the months visually). •	Of the 32 malaria cases in 2017, more than 1/3 of the infections were considered to have been acquired in Africa. Two bar charts display the following information: •	Bar chart 1: Numbers of malaria cases by Plasmodium species and calendar year of diagnosis/report, active and reserve components, U.S. Armed Forces, 2008 – 2017  •	Bar chart 2: Annual numbers of cases of malaria associated with specific locations of acquisition, active and reserve components, U.S. Armed Forces, 2008 – 2017  The majority of U.S. military members diagnosed with malaria in 2017 were: •	Male (96.9%) •	Active component (81.3%) •	In the Army (75.0%) •	In their 20’s (56.3%) Access the full report in the February 2018 MSMR (Vol. 25 No. 2). Go to www.Health.mil/MSMR  Picture of a mosquito displays on the graphic.

This update for 2017 describes the epidemiologic patterns of malaria incidence in active and reserve component service members of the U.S. Armed Forces.

Recommended Content:

Health Readiness | Armed Forces Health Surveillance Branch | Epidemiology and Analysis | Medical Surveillance Monthly Report | Bug-Borne Illnesses

Outbreak of Influenza and Rhinovirus co-circulation among unvaccinated recruits, U.S. Coast Guard Training Center Cape May, NJ, 24 July – 21 August 2016

Infographic
2/5/2018
On 29 July 2016, the U.S. Coast Guard Training Center Cape May (TCCM), NJ, identified an increase in febrile respiratory illness (FRI) among recruits who were unvaccinated against seasonal influenza as a result of the annual vaccine’s expiration. This report characterizes the outbreak and containment measures implemented at TCCM during the outbreak period. In 2016, respiratory infections affected more than 250,000 U.S. service members and comprised approximately 22% of medical encounters among military recruit populations – who are highly susceptible to respiratory infections. Seasonal influenza and rhinovirus are two of the leading respiratory pathogens. During the Surveillance Period: 115 recruits reported respiratory infection symptoms. Pie chart 1 shows the following data: •	41 (35.7%) suspected cases •	74 (64.3%) confirmed cases Among confirmed cases, lab specimens tested positive for: •	Influenza A 34 (45.9%) •	Rhinovirus 28 (37.8%) •	Influenza A and rhinovirus co-infection 11 (14.9%) •	Rhinovirus and adenovirus co-infection 1 (1.4%) Data above depicted in pie chart 2. •	24 July – 6 August, Influenza predominated •	7 August – 20 August, Rhinovirus predominated Although the outbreak significantly affected operations at TCCM, a timely and comprehensive response resulted in containment of the outbreak within 5 weeks. Key Factor for Outbreak Control •	Rapid detection through FRI sentinel surveillance •	Quick decision-making •	Streamlined response by using a single chain of command •	Rapid implementation of both nonpharmaceutical and pharmaceutical interventions Access the full report in the January 2018 MSMR (Vol. 25, No. 1). Go to: www.Health.mil/MSMR

This report characterizes the outbreak and containment measures implemented at the U.S. Coast Guard Training Center Cape May (TCCM), New Jersey, during a July 24 – August 21, 2016 outbreak period.

Recommended Content:

Health Readiness | Medical Surveillance Monthly Report | Integrated Biosurveillance | Influenza Summary and Reports

Department of Defense Global, Laboratory-based Influenza Surveillance Program’s Influenza vaccine effectiveness estimates and surveillance trends, 2016 – 2017 Influenza Season

Infographic
2/5/2018
Each year, the Department of Defense (DoD) Global, Laboratory-based Influenza Surveillance Program performs surveillance for influenza among service members of the DoD and their dependent family members. In addition to routine surveillance, vaccine effectiveness (VE) studies are performed and results are shared with the Food and Drug Administration, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the World Health Organization for vaccine evaluation. This report documents the annual surveillance trends for the 2016 – 2017 influenza season and the end-of-season VE results. The analysis was performed by the U.S. Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine Epidemiology Laboratory, and the DoD Influenza Surveillance Program staff at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH. FINDINGS: A total of 5,555 specimens were tested from 84 locations: •	2,486 (44.7%) negative •	1,382 (24.9%) influenza A •	1,093 (19.7%) other respiratory pathogens •	443 (8.0%) influenza B •	151 (2.7%) co-infections The predominant influenza strain was A (H3N2), representing 73.8% of all circulating influenza. Pie chart displays this information. Graph showing the numbers and percentages of respiratory specimens positive for influenza viruses, and numbers of influenza viruses identified, by type, by surveillance week, Department of Defense healthcare beneficiaries, 2016 – 2017 influenza season displays. The vaccine effectiveness (VE) for this season was slightly lower than for the 2015 – 2016 season, which had a 63% (95% confidence interval: 53% - 71%) adjusted VE. The adjusted VE for the 2016 – 2017 season was 48% protective against all types of influenza.  Access the full report in the January 2018 MSMR (Vol. 25, No. 1). Go to: www.Health.mil/MSMR

This infographic documents the annual surveillance trends for the 2016 – 2017 influenza season and the end-of-season vaccine effectiveness.

Recommended Content:

Health Readiness | Influenza Summary and Reports | Medical Surveillance Monthly Report | Vaccine-Preventable Diseases | Force Health Protection

2018 #ColdReadiness Twitter chat recap: Preventing cold weather injuries for service members and their families

Fact Sheet
2/5/2018

To help protect U.S. armed forces, the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Branch (AFHSB) hosted a live #ColdReadiness Twitter chat on Wednesday, January 24th, 12-1:30 pm EST to discuss what service members and their families need to know about winter safety and preventing cold weather injuries as the temperatures drop. This fact sheet documents highlights from the Twitter chat.

Recommended Content:

Medical Surveillance Monthly Report | Winter Safety | Medical and Dental Preventive Care Fitness | Health Readiness

Insomnia and motor vehicle accident-related injuries, Active Component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2007 – 2016

Infographic
1/25/2018
Insomnia is the most common sleep disorder in adults and its incidence in the U.S. Armed Forces is increasing. A potential consequence of inadequate sleep is increased risk of motor vehicle accidents (MVAs). MVAs are the leading cause of peacetime deaths and a major cause of non-fatal injuries in the U.S. military members. To examine the relationship between insomnia and motor vehicle accident-related injuries (MVAs) in the U.S. military, this retrospective cohort study compared 2007 – 2016 incidence rates of MVA-related injuries between service members with diagnosed insomnia and service members without a diagnosis of insomnia. After adjustment for multiple covariates, during 2007 – 2016, active component service members with insomnia had more than double the rate of MVA-related injuries, compared to service members without insomnia. Findings:  •	Line graph shows the annual rates of motor vehicle accident-related injuries, active component service members with and without diagnoses of insomnia, U.S. Armed Forces, 2007 – 2016  •	Annual rates of MVA-related injuries were highest in the insomnia cohort in 2007 and 2008, and lowest in 2016 •	There were 5,587 cases of MVA-related injuries in the two cohorts during the surveillance period. •	Pie chart displays the following data: 1,738 (31.1%) in the unexposed cohort and 3,849 (68.9%) in the insomnia cohort The highest overall crude rates of MVA-related injuries were seen in service members who were: •	Less than 25 years old •	Junior enlisted rank/grade •	Armor/transport occupation •	 •	With a history of mental health diagnosis •	With a history of alcohol-related disorders Access the full report in the December 2017 (Vol. 24, No. 12). Go to www.Health.mil/MSMR Image displays a motor vehicle accident.

To examine the relationship between insomnia and motor vehicle accident-related injuries (MVAs) in the U.S. military, this retrospective cohort study compared 2007 – 2016 incidence rates of MVA-related injuries between service members with diagnosed insomnia and service members without a diagnosis of insomnia.

Recommended Content:

Armed Forces Health Surveillance Branch | Health Readiness | Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

Seizures among Active Component service members, U.S. Armed Forces, 2007 – 2016

Infographic
1/25/2018
This retrospective study estimated the rates of seizures diagnosed among deployed and non-deployed service members to identify factors associated with seizures and determine if seizure rates differed in deployment settings. It also attempted to evaluate the associations between seizures, traumatic brain injury (TBI), and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) by assessing correlations between the incidence rates of seizures and prior diagnoses of TBI and PTSD. Seizures have been defined as paroxysmal neurologic episodes caused by abnormal neuronal activity in the brain. Approximately one in 10 individuals will experience a seizure in their lifetime. Line graph 1: Annual crude incidence rates of seizures among non-deployed service members, active component, U.S. Armed Forces data •	A total of 16,257 seizure events of all types were identified among non-deployed service members during the 10-year surveillance period. •	The overall incidence rate was 12.9 seizures per 10,000 person-years (p-yrs.) •	There was a decrease in the rate of seizures diagnosed in the active component of the military during the 10-year period. Rates reached their lowest point in 2015 – 9.0 seizures per 10,000 p-yrs. •	Annual rates were markedly higher among service members with recent PTSD and TBI diagnoses, and among those with prior seizure diagnoses. Line graph 2: Annual crude incidence rates of seizures by traumatic brain injury (TBI) and recent post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis among non-deployed active component service members, U.S. Armed Forces •	For service members who had received both TBI and PTSD diagnoses, seizure rates among the deployed and the non-deployed were two and three times the rates among those with only one of those diagnoses, respectively. •	Rates of seizures tended to be higher among service members who were: in the Army or Marine Corps, Female, African American, Younger than age 30, Veterans of no more than one previous deployment, and in the occupations of combat arms, armor, or healthcare Line graph 3: Annual crude incidence rates of seizures diagnosed among service members deployed to Operation Enduring Freedom, Operation Iraqi Freedom, or Operation New Dawn, U.S. Armed Forces, 2008 – 2016  •	A total of 814 cases of seizures were identified during deployment to operations in Iraq and Afghanistan during the 9-year surveillance period (2008 – 2016). •	For deployed service members, the overall incidence rate was 9.1 seizures per 10,000 p-yrs. •	Having either a TBI or recent PTSD diagnosis alone was associated with a 3-to 4-fold increase in the rate of seizures. •	Only 19 cases of seizures were diagnosed among deployed individuals with a recent PTSD diagnosis during the 9-year surveillance period. •	Overall incidence rates among deployed service members were highest for those in the Army, females, those younger than age 25, junior enlisted, and in healthcare occupations. Access the full report in the December 2017 MSMR (Vol. 24, No. 12). Go to www.Health.mil/MSMR

This infographic documents a retrospective study which estimated the rates of seizures diagnosed among deployed and non-deployed service members to identify factors associated with seizures and determine if seizure rates differed in deployment settings. The study also evaluated the associations between seizures, traumatic brain injury (TBI), and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) by assessing correlations between the incidence rates of seizures and prior diagnoses of TBI and PTSD.

Recommended Content:

Health Readiness | Posttraumatic Stress Disorder | Armed Forces Health Surveillance Branch | Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

Exertional heat injuries pose annual threat to U.S. service members

Article
7/20/2017
Two U.S. service members perform duties in warm weather where they may be exposed to extreme heat conditions and a higher risk of heat illness.

Exertional heat injuries pose annual threat to U.S. service members, according to a study published in Defense Health Agency’s Armed Forces Health Surveillance Branch (AFHSB) peer-reviewed journal, the Medical Surveillance Monthly Report.

Recommended Content:

Armed Forces Health Surveillance Branch | Medical Surveillance Monthly Report | Summer Safety

Demographic and Military Traits of Service Members Diagnosed as Traumatic Brain Injury Cases

Fact Sheet
3/30/2017

This fact sheet provides details on the demographic and military traits of service members diagnosed as traumatic brain injury (TBI) cases during a 16-year surveillance period from 2001 through 2016, a total of 276,858 active component service members received first-time diagnoses of TBI - a structural alteration of the brain or physiological disruption of brain function caused by an external force.

Recommended Content:

Armed Forces Health Surveillance Branch | Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

Heat Illnesses by Location, Active Component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2012-2016 Fact Sheet

Fact Sheet
3/30/2017

This fact sheet provides details on heat illnesses by location during a five-year surveillance period from 2012 through 2016. 11,967 heat-related illnesses were diagnosed at more than 250 military installations and geographic locations worldwide. Three Army Installations accounted for close to one-third of all heat illnesses during the period.

Recommended Content:

Armed Forces Health Surveillance Branch | Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

Rhabdomyolysis by Location, Active Component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2012-2016 Fact Sheet

Fact Sheet
3/30/2017

This fact sheet provides details on Rhabdomyolysis by location for active component, U.S. Armed Forces during a five-year surveillance period from 2012 through 2016. The medical treatment facilities at nine installations diagnosed at least 50 cases each and, together approximately half (49.9%) of all diagnosed cases.

Recommended Content:

Armed Forces Health Surveillance Branch | Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

2016 marks first year of zero combat amputations since the start of the Afghan, Iraq wars

Article
3/28/2017
An analysis by the Medical Surveillance Monthly Report recently reported 2016 marks the first year without combat amputations since the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq began. U.S. Armed Forces are at risk for traumatic amputations of limbs during combat deployments and other work hazards. (DoD photo)

An analysis by the Medical Surveillance Monthly Report (MSMR) recently reported 2016 marks the first year of zero combat amputations since the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq began.

Recommended Content:

Medical Surveillance Monthly Report | Epidemiology and Analysis
<< < ... 11 12 13 > >> 
Showing results 181 - 194 Page 13 of 13

DHA Address: 7700 Arlington Boulevard | Suite 5101 | Falls Church, VA | 22042-5101

Some documents are presented in Portable Document Format (PDF). A PDF reader is required for viewing. Download a PDF Reader or learn more about PDFs.