Skip main navigation

Military Health System

Clear Your Browser Cache

This website has recently undergone changes. Users finding unexpected concerns may care to clear their browser's cache to ensure a seamless experience.

Don’t Underestimate Mother Nature: Winter Safety Tips for Cold Weather

Image of Military Personnel training. Soldiers from Charlie Company, 2-116th Cavalry Brigade Combat Team, Idaho Army National Guard, practice combined arms battalion, squad-level infantry movements on the Orchard Combat Training Center, Jan. 20, 2019. The training combined dry-fire rehearsal culminating in a live-fire exercise (Photo by: Thomas Alvarez, Idaho Army National Guard).

Never forget the power of nature and its effects, especially if exploring outdoors during the coldest months of the year.

In wintertime, "hands down, the worst mistake you can make is to underestimate what challenges nature is capable of and overestimate your own abilities," said Army Master Sgt. Daniel Fields.

"These are the root causes of the majority of the troubles that I have seen."

Two crucial aspects of retaining readiness in winter climates are nutrition and liquids uptake, he said. The same safety tips apply to hikers, skiers and campers.

The field packs that infantry troops carry contain more nutrient-dense foods and snacks, for example.

Despite the added nutrients, "soldiers can spiral pretty quickly into hypothermia from the 'shell-core effect,'" Fields said. The shell core effect takes over when soldiers are on the move in the winter. They use up more energy. They sweat in their winter uniforms. If they don't eat or drink, they can become dehydrated, cold and fatigued.

"There is decreased blood flow to the extremities," he explained. "A consequence is cold diuresis, where they urinate more and more frequently," thus becoming more and more dehydrated. Diuresis occurs because the body has to filter more blood through the core to keep warm, thus engaging the kidneys in more urine production as they eliminate toxins.

A slew of other issues can also happen, such as chilblains and frostbite, even when soldiers have been educated about the effects of the cold, Fields noted. That's what training is for: "Sometimes it takes a little while to get them to understand until they're experienced and comfortable working in the cold."

For those dealing with winter's cold temperatures and possibly snow, sleet, or frozen rain, here is Fields' top advice:

  1. Embrace the extremes of the environment. Don't hide from it.
  2. Seek every available opportunity to acclimate and train in the cold. This only builds confidence and proficiency.
  3. Prior to conducting an outdoor winter activity, seek ways to educate yourself about the specific activity.
  4. Invest in quality outdoor clothing and equipment. The dividends will be priceless.
  5. Understand the effects of the cold (or altitude) on the body.
Picture of winter training gear Soldiers from the 10th Mountain Division train on cold weather tactics with subject matter experts from the 86th Infantry Brigade Combat Team (Mountain) as part of the annual Mountain Legacy event, Camp Ethan Allen Training Site, Jericho, Vermont, in February 2021 ( Photo by: Army Maj. J. Scott Detweiler, Joint Force Headquarters, Vermont National Guard).

"If soldiers are prepared, mentally and physically, with the proper training and equipment, those units will be extremely effective, year round and in any climate. A soldier well trained and experienced in the cold will also perform at a high level in more hospitable weather," he said.

A soldier trained only in summertime or under ideal conditions will have great difficulty when operating in cold weather, he warned. "In many cases, soldiers and units have an absolute inability to perform effectively in extreme cold."

"When the mercury drops and the snow falls, avoid (when prudent) conducting indoor physical training. Snowshoeing for example, is an excellent opportunity to allow soldiers to become familiar and comfortable with their cold weather uniform and equipment while at the same time conducting physical training," Fields said.

Educational opportunities for wintertime activities exist at many colleges and outdoor recreation groups or co-ops, Fields said. "If you'd like to go backcountry skiing, snowshoeing or camping, for example, take an avalanche awareness course, a wilderness first aid course or even a backcountry camping course.

Avoid tight fitting, restrictive clothing, especially garments made with cotton. "Wear clothing loose and in layers to maximize the benefits of the insulating properties of the clothing."

"Many live by the mantra: 'There is no bad weather, only bad equipment (clothing).'"

Finally, Fields said: "Continually study and learn to recognize the signs and symptoms of cold weather injuries. Most importantly, know how to prevent and treat dehydration, hypothermia, chilblains and frost bite."

Here are some other top tips from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for staying safe:

  • Bring extra water with you and plan to drink more water when exerting yourself outdoors in the cold.
  • Carry a rucksack or backpack filled with nutrient-dense foods, an aluminum blanket, a compass, back-up battery for your cell phone, mirror, rope, utility knife, and first aid kit.
  • Carry extra gloves or mittens in case yours get wet.
  • Stay on the trails. Off trail, you might not be able to see trunk holes, rocks and other potential hazards.
  • Tell someone where you're going, with whom, and when you plan to be back. Create a time when they should alert authorities that you may be lost or injured.
  • Be aware of frostbite, which can show up sooner than you think. Never immerse a frostbitten extremity in hot water. Instead, you should gradually warm up the extremity over time to avoid damage to blood vessels and tissues.
  • If a heavy snowstorm starts, stay where you are and build a lean-to if you can. Don't wander off, so that rescuers can more easily find you if needed.
  • Have a safety kit ready in your car's trunk that includes blankets, protein bars, water, first aid kit, and an auto safety kit that includes flares.
  • A colorful rag may be useful to hang out your window so snow plows can see you.
  • In an emergency, stay put until help comes if at all possible.

You also may be interested in...

Infographic
Nov 21, 2022

Winter Outdoor Preparedness

Winter Safety Outside

#beforeyoustartbesafetysmart #besafeoutside Playing in the snow can be fun, but the fun can fade if one becomes victim to hypothermia or frostbite. Staying out in the cold for extended periods of time can cause cold-related problems and put health in jeopardy, so learn how to avoid, spot, and treat these conditions. Also, keep other vulnerable ...

Infographic
Nov 21, 2022

Decorating Safety

Winter Safety - Decorating

Holiday trees may intend to bring cheer, but they can also be a holiday hazard if not set up carefully. Be cautious when decorating your home for the holidays. https://www.ors.od.nih.gov/News/Pages/NIH-Holiday-Decorating-Guidance.aspx. #beforeyoustartbesafetysmart, #safetyfirstthiswinter

Infographic
Nov 21, 2022

Winter Safety

Winter Safety Infographic

#beforeyoustartbesafetysmart, #safetyfirstthiswinter The winter season is full of safety hazards: cold, snow, and ice; home heating and maintenance challenges; and seasonal décor hazards. Taking time ahead of the winter season to make sure you and your family are prepared for whatever winter brings will help you reduce your chances of illness, injury, ...

Infographic
Nov 21, 2022

Workplace Safety

Winter Workplace Safety

#beforeyoustartbesafetysmart, #besafeatwork The DHA urges service members and staff to be safe in the workplace. Know your surroundings and take safety precautions this winter. www.health.mil/InjuryPrevention

Infographic
May 21, 2021

Feb Theme Cover v2

Social media graphic on healthy heart for body and soul with two people running and talking

Social media graphic on healthy heart for body and soul with two people running and talking

Infographic
May 21, 2021

Winter Safety

Social Media Graphic on Winter Safety with Service Member shoveling snow.  Winter Safety: Whether shoveling the walk, or building a shelter during winter training exercises, proper gear prevents injury in extreme weather, and lessens the risk of angina, or chest pain, during strenuous cold weather activity

Social Media Graphic on Winter Safety with Service Member shoveling snow. Winter Safety: Whether shoveling the walk, or building a shelter during winter training exercises, proper gear prevents injury in extreme weather, and lessens the risk of angina, or chest pain, during strenuous cold weather activity

Infographic
May 21, 2021

Total Force Fitness cogs Physical

Social media graphic, Physical Fitness and Your Health, has heart logo, Spiritual Fitness Shuttlecock image, Total Force Fitness Logo and MHS logo.

Social media graphic, Physical Fitness and Your Health, has heart logo, Spiritual Fitness Shuttlecock image, Total Force Fitness Logo and MHS logo.

Infographic
May 21, 2021

Winter Heart v3

Social Media infographic on Winter Heart Safety with thermometer.  Winter Heart Safety: Did you know? Cold weather can cause blood vessels to constrict, making the heart work harder to pump. Strenuous activity out in the cold should be approached with caution, especially if you are not used to physical activity. Avoid cold weather triggers. Listen to your body

Social Media infographic on Winter Heart Safety with thermometer. Winter Heart Safety: Did you know? Cold weather can cause blood vessels to constrict, making the heart work harder to pump. Strenuous activity out in the cold should be approached with caution, especially if you are not used to physical activity. Avoid cold weather triggers. Listen to ...

Skip subpage navigation
Refine your search
Last Updated: July 11, 2023
Follow us on Instagram Follow us on LinkedIn Follow us on Facebook Follow us on X Follow us on YouTube Sign up on GovDelivery