Skip to main content

Military Health System

Test of Sitewide Banner

This is a test of the sitewide banner capability. In the case of an emergency, site visitors would be able to visit the news page for addition information.

Testosterone Replacement Therapy Use Among Active Component Service Men, 2017

Image of Testosterone. Marines carry a wooden log for physical fitness.


This analysis summarizes the prevalence of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) during 2017 among active component service men by demographic and military characteristics. This analysis also determines the percentage of those receiving TRT in 2017 who had an indication for receiving TRT using the 2018 American Urological Association (AUA) clinical practice guidelines. In 2017, 5,093 of 1,076,633 active component service men filled a prescription for TRT, for a period prevalence of 4.7 per 1,000 male service members. After adjustment for covariates, the prevalence of TRT use remained highest among Army members, senior enlisted members, warrant officers, non-Hispanic whites, American Indians/Alaska Natives, those in combat arms occupations, health care workers, those who were married, and those with other/unknown marital status. Among active component male service members who received TRT in 2017, only 44.5% met the 2018 AUA clinical practice guidelines for receiving TRT.

What Are the New Findings?

In 2017, the prevalence of TRT use among active component service men was 4.7 per 1,000. Using the 2018 AUA clinical practice guidelines, only 44.5% of those receiving TRT had an indication to be on the medication.

What Is the Impact on Readiness and Force Health Protection?

Out of every 1,000 male service members, almost 3 are inappropriately receiving TRT. Those being inappropriately treated may experience adverse effects of the medication, including obstructive sleep apnea, worsening of urinary tract symptoms, and edema. These adverse effects have the potential to impact deployability and medical readiness.


Testosterone deficiency, also known as hypogonadism or testicular hypofunction, is a combined biochemical and clinical syndrome in adult males characterized by low levels of circulating total testosterone that may adversely affect multiple organ systems and quality of life.1 In healthy men aged 18–50 years, total serum testosterone levels range from 300 ng/dl to 1000 ng/dl.2 These levels start to fall significantly after 50 years of age.2 The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging found that 12% of men in their 50s and 50% of men in their 80s had total serum testosterone levels below 325 ng/dl.3 The average drop in testosterone is estimated at 3 ng/dl per year for men in their 50s and 11 ng/dl per year for men in their 80s.1 When hypogonadism is defined as a total serum testosterone level less than 300 ng/dl combined with symptomatic clinical criteria, the estimated prevalence of testosterone deficiency in the U.S. ranges from 5.6% to 6.5%.4

The American Urological Association (AUA) 2018 guidelines for the evaluation and management of testosterone deficiency recommend that clinicians use a total serum testosterone level below 300 ng/dl as a reasonable cutoff in support of the diagnosis of low testosterone.5 An additional recommendation was that the laboratory diagnosis of low testosterone should be made only after 2 total testosterone level measurements below 300 ng/dl on serum specimens taken on separate occa­sions.5 Finally, the AUA recommendation for a clinical diagnosis of testosterone deficiency is at least 1 total testosterone level below 300 ng/dl in addition to appropri­ate physical, cognitive, and/or sexual signs and symptoms.5,6 These clinical signs and symptoms include fatigue, reduced energy, reduced endurance, diminished physical performance, loss of body hair, reduced lean muscle mass, obesity, depressive symptoms, cognitive dysfunction, reduced motivation, poor concentration, poor memory, irritability, reduced sex drive, and reduced erectile function.2,5

Testosterone level testing and testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) prescriptions have tripled in recent years, and the estimated prevalence of TRT use among men in the U.S. is 0.9–2.9%.4,5 However, some men are prescribed TRT without an indication.5 The AUA estimates that up to 25% of men who eventually receive TRT do not have their testosterone levels checked prior to initiation of therapy. Furthermore, it is estimated that approximately 30% of men who are placed on TRT have no indication for the medication.5,7 The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) also reported a marked increase in the number of veterans who requested TRT for low testosterone levels.8 As of 2015, more than 85,000 veterans had received TRT through the VA.9 Many of these veterans insisted that their symptoms were due to "low T," despite having laboratory results indicating normal serum total testosterone levels.9 In the Military Health System (MHS), there also have been significant increases in the numbers of both TRT and testicular hypofunction diagnoses. From 2007–2011, males aged 25–44 years received androgen prescriptions at rates that increased 30% per year. During this same period, rates of medically coded hypogonadism increased over 40% per year.10

There are significant side effects and risks associated with TRT. TRT has been associated with an increased risk of adverse cardiovascular, respiratory, and dermatologic events among older men.11 There is inconsistent evidence about the effects of TRT in a military age population (17–60 years). Several studies noted adverse effects of TRT in younger populations including topical transference, erythrocytosis, interference with fertility, worsening of severe lower urinary tract symptoms, suppression of spermatogenesis, fluid retention and edema, and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).5,6 One recent study noted an increased risk of OSA but no increased risk of cardiovascular or thromboembolic events.12 With the increasing number of testosterone deficiency diagnoses and potential health risks associated with initi­ation of TRT, it is important to understand the epidemiology of receipt of TRT by U.S. service men and whether these individuals have an indication for receiving treatment. Previous studies of U.S. service men highlighted the need to connect individual prescriptions with a patient's androgen level in order to evaluate the appropriateness of prescribed TRT.10


Data were obtained from the Defense Medical Surveillance System (DMSS), which contains records of ambulatory encounters and hospitalizations of active component service members of the U.S. Armed Forces in military and civilian (if reimbursed through the MHS) treatment facilities. The DMSS also contains administrative records for prescriptions dispensed to service members at military treatment facilities (MTFs) or through civilian Purchased CareThe TRICARE Health Program is often referred to as purchased care. It is the services we “purchase” through the managed care support contracts.purchased care. In addition, laboratory data were obtained from the Navy and Marine Corps Public Health Center (NMCPHC), which include data from the Health Level 7 (HL7) database generated within the Composite Health Care System (CHCS) at fixed MTFs. Laboratory testing performed in civilian facilities is not captured in the HL7 database.

The prevalence of TRT utilization during 2017 was defined as the number of service men who had a dispensed prescription in 2017 with a therapeutic class code for androgens (excluding Danazol), among all male active component service members in the Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps in service during June 2017. Frequency and distribution of the dispensed androgen prescriptions were identified for each service man (Table 1). Covariates included service, age, military rank, race/ethnicity, military occupation, and marital status. Adjusted prevalence estimates were calculated using log binomial regression. All analyses were performed using SAS/STAT® software, version 9.4 (2014, SAS Institute, Cary, NC).

Laboratory tests and medical encounter history were examined for evidence of an indication for TRT among service men with a TRT prescription in 2017. NMCPHC was provided a line listing of service men who received a TRT prescription in 2017. NMCPHC then returned a line listing of those service men with total serum testosterone test results below 300 ng/dl. Total serum testosterone tests conducted prior to the last TRT prescription in 2017 were considered. Laboratory testing data were available for the period from May 2004 through 2017 for Navy service men and July 2006 through 2017 for all other service men. Electronic health records of service men with a TRT prescription in 2017 were also examined for a history of a qualifying diagnosis as indicated by any of the ICD-9 or ICD-10 codes presented in Table 2. These codes were identified after review of the relevant literature and current clinical practice guidelines from the Endocrine Society and the AUA.1,2,5,6 Service men were defined as having a prior indication for TRT if they met the AUA recommendations for 1) laboratory diagnosis (i.e., 2 total testosterone measurements less than 300 ng/dl) and/or 2) clinical diagnosis (i.e., at least 1 total testosterone measurement less than 300 ng/dl and at least 1 qualifying ICD-9 or ICD-10 diagnosis code).5 


During the 1-year surveillance period, a total of 5,093 active component service men had a filled prescription for TRT, yielding a crude period prevalence of 4.7 per 1,000 male service members (Table 3). Army service men had a higher prevalence of TRT use compared to men in the other service branches (6.3 per 1,000). Warrant officers (14.5 per 1,000) and senior officers (13.1 per 1,000) had a higher prevalence of TRT use compared to enlisted personnel (senior enlisted, 7.7 per 1,000; junior enlisted, 0.5 per 1,000) and junior officers (3.8 per 1,000). In addition, TRT use increased approximately linearly with increasing age as seen in Table 3. Non-Hispanic whites and American Indian/Alaska Native service men had the highest prevalence (5.6 per 1,000) compared to service men in other race/ethnicity groups, while non-Hispanic blacks (2.9 per 1,000) and Asian/Pacific Islanders (2.6 per 1,000) had the lowest. Health care workers had the highest prevalence (9.8 per 1,000) compared to those in other occupations, while motor transport workers had the lowest (2.2 per 1,000). Finally, service members who were never married had a TRT prevalence of 0.7 per 1,000, while married service men and those with “other/unknown” marital status had a prevalence of 7.5 and 8.1 per 1,000, respectively.

After adjusting for all covariates (Table 3), the prevalence of TRT use remained highest among Army members, senior enlisted members, warrant officers, non-Hispanic whites, American Indian/Alaska Natives, those in combat arms occupations, health care workers, those who were married, and those with other/unknown marital status. 

Among the 5,093 active component male service members who received TRT in 2017, 25.6% met the laboratory diagnosis criterion of having at least 2 total testosterone measurements that were less than 300 ng/dl. In addition, 44.3% of the service men who received TRT met the clinical diagnosis criteria of having at least 1 total testosterone measurement less than 300 ng/dl and documentation of at least 1 qualifying diagnosis code. Nearly all (99%) of the service men who met the laboratory diagnosis criterion also met the clinical diagnosis criteria. Overall, 44.5% of those who received TRT met the case definition for an indication for TRT (Table 4). Nearly 2 out of every 3 service men in the Navy (65.4%) and service men aged 17–29 years (64.1%) who received TRT did so without an indication for TRT.

Editorial Comment

The crude prevalence of TRT of 4.7 per 1,000 service men, or 0.5%, is well below the general U.S population estimate of 0.9–2.9%.1 This is expected since the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) active component population is younger on average than the general population, is screened for pre-existing conditions prior to accession into the military, and includes few individuals over 60 years of age. In addition, there is a pronounced gradient of increasing prevalence of TRT use with increas­ing age. This pattern is consistent with the published literature on the civilian population and the known biological process of aging.2 

Before and after adjustment, there were pronounced differences in the prevalence of TRT use between some occupations. The increased prevalence of TRT use among health care workers may be related to medical knowledge, access to care, and/or availability of treatment. The higher prevalence observed among those in combat arms occupations could be related to the nature of their work and the associated clinical symptoms. These warfighters are chronically sleep deprived, and that can manifest as depression, fatigue, and irritability.13 In contrast, pilots and aircrew are anecdotally known for their refusal to seek care, even to the point of concealing illness and injuries, in order to maintain their flight status. Hypogonadism diagnoses result in pilots and aircrew losing their flight status14; they then must go through the medical waiver process to regain their certifications.14 This is a potential explanation for why the prevalence of TRT use in pilots and aircrew is much lower than among service men in other occupational groups. Even after adjustment, there remains an association between TRT and marital status. Compared to single service men, married service men may be more likely to seek care related to difficulties with conceiving a child or because of spousal encouragement to seek care for other comorbid conditions associated with hypogonadism.

Overall, 44.5% of those active component men who received TRT had an indication for receiving treatment when following the 2018 AUA clinical practice guidelines for the management of testosterone deficiency. The finding of 44.5% is substantially less than the AUA’s estimation for 70% in the civilian population; however, this could be related to differences in the age distributions of the study populations. The AUA estimation was derived from a 2015 study that used the North Shore University Health System Data Warehouse. However, the average age of the study population was 56 years.7 In contrast, in the current study, over 90% of the service men on TRT in 2017 were under the age of 50. Older men are more likely to have an indication for TRT because of a higher prevalence of hypogonadism.

This study was limited to active component service men, so comparisons with studies of the civilian population should be regarded with caution given the differences between the 2 populations in terms of age and health status. Furthermore, the data captured in this report may not represent service men’s true medical histories, as some members may have been evaluated by non-network civilian providers and pos­sibly paid the costs for this medical care out-of-pocket or through private health insurance. Diagnostic records, laboratory data, and prescription data associated with such non-network health care would not have been included in the current analysis. In addition, subjective signs and symptoms derived from questionnaires have been shown to have poor sensitivity whereas the clinical diagnosis criteria used in the current analysis were based upon a consolidation of definitions of hypogonadism reported in the published literature.1,2,5,6 Finally, in some general population studies, treatment for hypogonadism was based upon other criteria. The 2018 AUA guidelines were released after the surveillance period. Prior to the release of these guidelines, there were no commonly accepted standards for diagnosing hypogonadism.

During 2017, approximately 1 out of every 200 service men (0.47%) was treated with TRT. While this is a smaller percentage than that observed in the civilian population, it still represents a fairly large number of service men. Primary care providers in the MHS should be aware of the prevalence of TRT use in order to properly assess patients presenting with comorbid conditions. Furthermore, those providers who are considering initiating TRT should be aware of the 2018 AUA guidelines in order to reduce the frequency of TRT prescriptions that lack valid indications. The DOD might consider limiting initiation of TRT to those providers with appropriate board certification or other specialized training in order to limit the frequency of inappro­priate TRT prescriptions. Such a limitation could lessen the frequency of inappropriate prescriptions of long-term medications by physicians who have not yet completed residency training. Finally, future studies are recommended to examine whether the new clinical practice guidelines are improving the percentage of those receiving TRT who actually have an indication for treatment.

Author affiliations: Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, F. Edward Hébert School of Medicine, Department of Preventive Medicine & Biostatistics, Bethesda, MD (LCDR Larsen); Armed Forces Health Surveillance Branch, Silver Spring, MD (CDR Clausen, Dr. Stahlman)

Acknowledgments: The authors thank the Navy Marine Corps Public Health Center, Portsmouth, VA, for providing laboratory data.

Disclaimer: The contents, views, or opinions expressed in this publication or presentation are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, the Department of Defense (DOD), or the Departments of the Army, Navy, or Air Force. Mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.


  1. Lunenfeld B, Mskhalaya G, Zitzmann M, et al. Recommendations on the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of hypogonadism in men. Aging Male. 2015;18(1):5–15.
  2. Seftel AD. Male hypogonadism. Part I: Epidemiology of hypogonadism. Int J Impot Res. 2006;18(2):115–120.
  3. Harman SM, Metter EJ, Tobin JD, Pearson J, Blackman MR. Longitudinal effects of aging on serum total and free testosterone levels in healthy men. Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001;86(2):724–731.
  4. Bandari J, Ayyash OM, Emery SL, Wessel CB, Davies BJ. Marketing and testosterone treatment in the USA: a systematic review. Eur Urol Focus. 2017;3(4-5):395–402.
  5. Mulhall JP, Trost LW, Brannigan RE, et al. Evaluation and management of testosterone deficiency: AUA Guideline. J Urol. 2018;200(2):423–432.
  6. Bhasin S, Brito JP, Cunningham GR, et al. Testosterone therapy in men with hypogonadism: an Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline. Journal Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2018;103(5):1715–1744.
  7. Malik RD, Wang CE, Lapin B, Lakeman JC, Helfand BT. Characteristics of men undergoing testosterone replacement therapy and adherence to follow-up recommendations in metropolitan multicenter health care system. Urol. 2015;85(6):1382–1388.
  8. Walsh TJ, Shores MM, Fox AE, et al. Recent trends in testosterone testing, low testosterone levels, and testosterone treatment among Veterans. Androl. 2015;3(2):287–292.
  9. Boyle AM. VA educates patients about who really needs testosterone therapy. U.S. Medicine. 31 March 2015. Accessed 27 Feb. 2019.
  10. Canup R, Bogenberger K, Attipoe S, et al. Trends in androgen prescriptions from military treatment facilities: 2007 to 2011. Mil Med. 2015;180(7):728–731.
  11. Basaria S, Coviello AD, Travison TG, et al. Adverse events associated with testosterone administration. NEJM. 2010;363(2):109–122.
  12. Cole AP, Hanske J, Jiang W, et al. Impact of testosterone replacement therapy on thromboembolism, heart disease and obstructive sleep apnoea in men. BJU Int. 2018;121(5):811–818.
  13. Naval Medical Aerospace Institute. U.S. Navy Aeromedical Reference and Waiver Guide. Published 27 Nov. 2018. Accessed 27 Feb. 2019.
  14. Department of Defense, Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Military Community and Family Policy (ODASD (MC&FP)). 2015 demographics: profile of the military community. Accessed 27 Feb. 2019.

Frequency and distribution of androgen prescriptions dispensed to 5,093 active component males on TRT in 2017, by drug name
ICD-9 and ICD-10 codes for TRT indication
Crude and adjusted prevalence, by demographic and military characteristics, active component males who received TRT in 2017

Percent of active component males who received TRT in 2017 who met criteria for laboratory diagnosis, clinical diagnosis, and indication for TRT (N=5,093)

You also may be interested in...

Sexually Transmitted Infections, Active Component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2010–2018

Neisseria gonorrhoeae Photo Courtesy of CDC: M Rein

This report summarizes incidence rates of the 5 most common sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among active component service members of the U.S. Armed Forces during 2010–2018. Infections with chlamydia were the most common, followed in decreasing order of frequency by infections with genital human papillomavirus (HPV), gonorrhea, genital herpes simplex virus (HSV), and syphilis. Compared to men, women had higher rates of all STIs except for syphilis. In general, compared to their respective counterparts, younger service members, non-Hispanic blacks, soldiers, and enlisted members had higher incidence rates of STIs. During the latter half of the surveillance period, the incidence of chlamydia and gonorrhea increased among both male and female service members. Rates of syphilis increased for male service members but remained relatively stable among female service members. In contrast, the incidence of genital HPV and HSV decreased among both male and female service members. Similarities to and differences from the findings of the last MSMR update on STIs are discussed.

Vasectomy and Vasectomy Reversals, Active Component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2000–2017

Sperm is the male reproductive cell  Photo: iStock

During 2000–2017, a total of 170,878 active component service members underwent a first-occurring vasectomy, for a crude overall incidence rate of 8.6 cases per 1,000 person-years (p-yrs). Among the men who underwent incident vasectomy, 2.2% had another vasectomy performed during the surveillance period. Compared to their respective counterparts, the overall rates of vasectomy were highest among service men aged 30–39 years, non-Hispanic whites, married men, and those in pilot/air crew occupations. Male Air Force members had the highest overall incidence of vasectomy and men in the Marine Corps, the lowest. Crude annual vasectomy rates among service men increased slightly between 2000 and 2017. The largest increases in rates over the 18-year period occurred among service men aged 35–49 years and among men working as pilots/air crew. Among those who underwent vasectomy, 1.8% also had at least 1 vasectomy reversal during the surveillance period. The likelihood of vasectomy reversal decreased with advancing age. Non-Hispanic black and Hispanic service men were more likely than those of other race/ethnicity groups to undergo vasectomy reversals.

Update: Malaria, U.S. Armed Forces, 2018

Anopheles merus

Malaria infection remains an important health threat to U.S. service mem­bers who are located in endemic areas because of long-term duty assign­ments, participation in shorter-term contingency operations, or personal travel. In 2018, a total of 58 service members were diagnosed with or reported to have malaria. This represents a 65.7% increase from the 35 cases identi­fied in 2017. The relatively low numbers of cases during 2012–2018 mainly reflect decreases in cases acquired in Afghanistan, a reduction due largely to the progressive withdrawal of U.S. forces from that country. The percentage of cases of malaria caused by unspecified agents (63.8%; n=37) in 2018 was the highest during any given year of the surveillance period. The percent­age of cases identified as having been caused by Plasmodium vivax (10.3%; n=6) in 2018 was the lowest observed during the 10-year surveillance period. The percentage of malaria cases attributed to P. falciparum (25.9 %) in 2018 was similar to that observed in 2017 (25.7%), although the number of cases increased. Malaria was diagnosed at or reported from 31 different medical facilities in the U.S., Afghanistan, Italy, Germany, Djibouti, and Korea. Pro­viders of medical care to military members should be knowledgeable of and vigilant for clinical manifestations of malaria outside of endemic areas.

Update: Incidence of Glaucoma Diagnoses, Active Component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2013–2017


Glaucoma is an eye disease that involves progressive optic nerve damage and vision loss, leading to blindness if undetected or untreated. This report describes an analysis using the Defense Medical Surveillance System to identify all active component service members with an incident diagnosis of glaucoma during the period between 2013 and 2017. The analysis identified 37,718 incident cases of glaucoma and an overall incidence rate of 5.9 cases per 1,000 person-years (p-yrs). The majority of cases (97.6%) were diagnosed at an early stage as borderline glaucoma; of these borderline cases, 2.2% progressed to open-angle glaucoma during the study period. No incident cases of absolute glaucoma, or total blindness, were identified. Rates of glaucoma were higher among non-Hispanic black (11.0 per 1,000 p-yrs), Asian/Pacific Islander (9.5), and Hispanic (6.9) service members, compared with non-Hispanic white (4.0) service members. Rates among female service members (6.6 per 1,000 p-yrs) were higher than those among male service members (5.8). Between 2013 and 2017, incidence rates of glaucoma diagnoses increased by 75.4% among all service members.

Re-evaluation of the MSMR Case Definition for Incident Cases of Malaria

Anopheles merus

The MSMR has been publishing the results of surveillance studies of malaria since 1995. The standard MSMR case definition uses Medical Event Reports and records of hospitalizations in counting cases of malaria. This report summarizes the performance of the standard MSMR case definition in estimating incident cases of malaria from 2015 through 2017. Also explored was the potential surveillance value of including outpatient encounters with diagnoses of malaria or positive laboratory tests for malaria in the case definition. The study corroborated the relative accuracy of the MSMR case definition in estimating malaria incidence and provided the basis for updating the case definition in 2019 to include positive laboratory tests for malaria antigen within 30 days of an outpatient diagnosis.

Outbreak of Acute Respiratory Illness Associated with Adenovirus Type 4 at the U.S. Naval Academy, 2016

Malaria case definition

Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are known to cause respiratory illness outbreaks at basic military training (BMT) sites. HAdV type-4 and -7 vaccines are routinely administered at enlisted BMT sites, but not at military academies. During Aug.–Sept. 2016, U.S. Naval Academy clinical staff noted an increase in students presenting with acute respiratory illness (ARI). An investigation was conducted to determine the extent and cause of the outbreak. During 22 Aug.–11 Sept. 2016, 652 clinic visits for ARI were identified using electronic health records. HAdV-4 was confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction assay in 18 out of 33 patient specimens collected and 1 additional HAdV case was detected from hospital records. Two HAdV-4 positive patients were treated for pneumonia including 1 hospitalized patient. Molecular analysis of 4 HAdV-4 isolates identified genome type 4a1, which is considered vaccine-preventable. Understanding the impact of HAdV in congregate settings other than enlisted BMT sites is necessary to inform discussions regarding future HAdV vaccine strategy.

Thyroid Disorders, Active Component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2008–2017

Cover 1

This analysis describes the incidence and prevalence of five thyroid disorders (goiter, thyrotoxicosis, primary/not otherwise specified [NOS] hypothyroidism, thyroiditis, and other disorders of the thyroid) among active component service members between 2008 and 2017. During the 10-year surveillance period, the most common incident thyroid disorder among male and female service members was primary/NOS hypothyroidism and the least common were thyroiditis and other disorders of thyroid. Primary/NOS hypothyroidism was diagnosed among 8,641 females (incidence rate: 43.7 per 10,000 person-years [p-yrs]) and 11,656 males (incidence rate: 10.2 per 10,000 p-yrs). Overall incidence rates of all thyroid disorders were 3 to 5 times higher among females compared to males. Among both males and females, incidence of primary/NOS hypothyroidism was higher among non-Hispanic white service members compared with service members in other race/ethnicity groups. The incidence of most thyroid disorders remained stable or decreased during the surveillance period. Overall, the prevalence of most thyroid disorders increased during the first part of the surveillance period and then either decreased or leveled off.31.6 per 100,000 active component service members in 2017. Validation of ICD-9/ICD-10 diagnostic codes for MetS using the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria is needed to establish the level of agreement between the two methods for identifying this condition.

Adrenal Gland Disorders, Active Component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2002–2017

Adrenal Gland Disorders, Active Component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2002–2017

During 2002–2017, the most common incident adrenal gland disorder among male and female service members was adrenal insufficiency and the least common was adrenomedullary hyperfunction. Adrenal insufficiency was diagnosed among 267 females (crude overall incidence rate: 8.2 cases per 100,000 person-years [p-yrs]) and 729 males (3.9 per 100,000 p-yrs). In both sexes, overall rates of other disorders of adrenal gland and Cushing’s syndrome were lower than for adrenal insufficiency but higher than for hyperaldosteronism, adrenogenital disorders, and adrenomedullary hyperfunction. Crude overall rates of adrenal gland disorders among females tended to be higher than those of males, with female:male rate ratios ranging from 2.1 for adrenal insufficiency to 5.5 for androgenital disorders and Cushing’s syndrome. The highest overall rates of adrenal insufficiency for males and females were among non-Hispanic white service members. Among females, rates of Cushing's syndrome and other disorders of adrenal gland were 31.6 per 100,000 active component service members in 2017. Validation of ICD-9/ICD-10 diagnostic codes for MetS using the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria is needed to establish the level of agreement between the two methods for identifying this condition.

Incidence and Prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome Using ICD-9 and ICD-10 Diagnostic Codes, Active Component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2002–2017

Incidence and Prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome Using ICD-9 and ICD-10 Diagnostic Codes, Active Component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2002–2017

This report uses ICD-9 and ICD-10 codes (277.7 and E88.81, respectively) for the metabolic syndrome (MetS) to summarize trends in the incidence and prevalence of this condition among active component members of the U.S. Armed Forces between 2002 and 2017. During this period, the crude overall incidence rate of MetS was 7.5 cases per 100,000 person-years (p-yrs). Compared to their respective counterparts, overall incidence rates were highest among Asian/Pacific Islanders, Air Force members, and warrant officers and were lowest among those of other/unknown race/ethnicity, Marine Corps members, and junior enlisted personnel and officers. During 2002–2017, the annual incidence rates of MetS peaked in 2009 at 11.6 cases per 100,000 p-yrs and decreased to 5.9 cases per 100,000 p-yrs in 2017. Annual prevalence rates of MetS increased steadily during the first 11 years of the surveillance period reaching a high of 38.9 per 100,000 active component service members in 2012, after which rates declined slightly to 31.6 per 100,000 active component service members in 2017. Validation of ICD-9/ICD-10 diagnostic codes for MetS using the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria is needed to establish the level of agreement between the two methods for identifying this condition.

Page 14 of 14 , showing items 196 - 204
First < ... 11 12 13 14 > Last 
Refine your search
Last Updated: November 04, 2022
Follow us on Instagram Follow us on LinkedIn Follow us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter Follow us on YouTube Sign up on GovDelivery