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Zika Virus

Zika is a disease caused by the Zika virus. It's mostly spread to people through the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito. The most common symptoms are fever, rash, joint pain, and conjunctivitis (red eyes). Zika is usually mild with symptoms lasting for several days to a week. People usually don’t get sick enough to go to the hospital, and they rarely die of Zika.

APHC Zika Hotline: 1-800-984-8523

Questions about Zika?

You can call the Army Public Health Center's “Soldier and Family Support” Zika Hotline if you have questions about Zika or if you're concerned that you've been exposed to the virus.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q1:

What is the Zika Virus?

A:

The Zika virus is spread primarily through the bite of an infected mosquito. These are the same mosquitoes that spread other viruses like dengue and chikungunya. Only about one in five people infected with the Zika virus will feel sick. In those that do, symptoms are usually mild and can include fever, rash, joint pain and red eye.

Learn more about symptoms and diagnosis from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

Q2:

What are symptoms of Zika virus?

A:

Many people infected with Zika virus won’t have symptoms or will only have mild symptoms. 

  • The most common symptoms of Zika are fever, rash, joint pain, or conjunctivitis (red eyes). 
  • Other common symptoms include muscle pain and headache.
  • The illness is usually mild with symptoms lasting for several days to a week.
  • People usually don’t get sick enough to go to the hospital, and they very rarely die of Zika. For this reason, many people might not realize they have been infected.

The incubation period (the time from exposure to symptoms) for Zika virus disease is not known, but is likely to be a few days to a week. See your doctor or other healthcare provider if you are pregnant and develop a fever, rash, joint pain, or red eyes within 2 weeks after traveling to an area with Zika. Be sure to tell your doctor or other healthcare provider where you traveled.

Q3:

How is Zika transmitted?

A:

Zika is primarily spread to people through the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes. It can also be transmitted from a pregnant mother to her baby during pregnancy, though we do not know how often that transmission occurs.

Learn more about Zika transmission.

Q4:

Can Zika be transmitted through sexual contact?

A:
  • Zika virus can be spread by a man to his sex partners.
  • In known cases of sexual transmission, the men developed Zika virus symptoms. From these cases, we know the virus can be spread when the man has symptoms, before symptoms start and after symptoms resolve.
  • In one case, the virus was spread a few days before symptoms developed.
  • The virus is present in semen longer than in blood.

>>View the CDC's Interim Guidance for Prevention of Sexual Transmission of Zika Virus

Q5:

Where are people contracting Zika?

A:

People are contracting Zika in areas where Aedes mosquitoes are present, which include South America, Central America and the Caribbean. As the CDC notes, specific areas where the Zika virus is being transmitted are likely to change over time, so please check the CDC website for the most updated information.

Q6:

Who is at risk of being infected?

A:

Anyone who is living in or traveling to an area where the virus is found is at risk for infection.

Q7:

What is the treatment for Zika?

A:

There is no vaccine or specific medicine to treat Zika virus infections.

Treat the symptoms:

  • Get plenty of rest.
  • Drink fluids to prevent dehydration.
  • Take medicine such as acetaminophen to reduce fever and pain.
  • Do not take aspirin or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
  • If you are taking medicine for another medical condition, talk to your healthcare provider before taking additional medication.
Q8:

Why are there specific recommendations for pregnant women?

A:

There may be a link between a serious birth defect called microcephaly—a condition in which a baby's head is smaller than expected—and other poor pregnancy outcomes and a Zika infection in a mother during pregnancy. While the link between Zika and these outcomes is being investigated the CDC recommends that you take special precautions if you fall into one of these groups:

If you are pregnant (in any trimester):

  • You should consider postponing travel to any area where the Zika virus is active.
  • If you must travel to an active region, talk to your doctor first and follow the steps to prevent mosquito bites during your trip.
  • If you are trying to become pregnant:
  • Before you travel, talk to your doctor about your plans to become pregnant and the risks posed from infection.

For more information, please visit the CDC's resources:

Q9:

Should I be concerned if my newborn is affected by the Zika virus?

A:

Families of newborns affected by Zika virus (Zika) may be overwhelmed, worried, and unsure of next steps in caring for their baby.  A baby affected by Zika virus may be born with significant health issues, like microcephaly. Others may not have apparent symptoms at birth, but may develop them over time.

For more information, please visit the CDC web page for Families of Newborns Affected by Zika.

Q10:

What can I do to prevent a Zika infection?

A:

Right now, there is no vaccine to prevent this disease. The best way to prevent diseases by mosquitoes is to protect yourself from getting bitten. Here’s how:

  • Wear long-sleeved shirts and long pants.
  • Stay in places with air conditioning or that use window, door screens, and netting to keep mosquitoes outside.
  • Use Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-registered insect repellents. All EPA-registered insect repellents are evaluated for safety and effectiveness.
  • Treat clothing and gear with permethrin or purchase permethrin-treated items.
  • Sleep under a mosquito bed net if you are overseas or outside and are not able to protect yourself from mosquito bites.

You can get a more in-depth explanation of prevention measures from the CDC.

Q11:

Should we be concerned with Zika in the United States?

A:
  • The U.S. mainland does have Aedes species mosquitoes that can become infected with and spread Zika virus. 
  • U.S. travelers who visit a country where Zika is found could become infected if bitten by a mosquito.
  • View Zika cases reported in the United States

Florida

The Florida Department of Health has identified two areas of Miami-Dade County where Zika is being spread by mosquitoes. In addition to the previously identified area in the Wynwood neighborhood, there is now mosquito-borne spread of Zika virus in a section of Miami Beach. >>Learn More

Policy Memos & Guidance

File Description
Zika Virus Information for Department of Defense Medical Personnel This memorandum provides information for Department of Defense (DoD) medical and force health protection personnel concerning prevention, diagnoses, and treatment of Zika virus infection. Implementation of this guidance is essential to protect the health of our DoD personnel located in, traveling to, or returning from areas with active transmission of Zika virus.
Guidance Regarding Zika Dengue and Chikungunya Viruses This guidance contains information about the potential for transfusion-transmitted Zika infection; recommends facilitating donor self-deferral of 28 days after travel to Mexico, the Caribbean, Central America and South America.
AABB Association Bulletin #16-03 This bulletin was developed by the AABB Transfusion-Transmitted Diseases (TTD) Committee in response to the ongoing outbreaks of Zika virus disease in Mexico, the Caribbean, and Central and South America. BPL 16-02, Attachment 1
Donor Self-deferral Information Sheet to Reduce the Risk of Transfusion-transmitted Zika This info sheet is to give to potential blood donors who have traveled to Mexico, the Caribbean and Central and South America in the last 28 days. BPL 16-02, Attachment 2
Post-donation Information Sheet This info sheet is to provide to blood donors after they give blood. BPL 16-02, Attachment 3
OPM Guidance on Workplace Flexibilities and Authorities for Dealing with the Zika Virus The U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) reminds agencies that a wide range of human resources (HR) policies and flexibilities are available to assist employees and agencies in dealing with the Zika virus. This guidance provides information regarding the leave and other workplace flexibilities and authorities available for these purposes.
Revised Recommendations for Reducing the Risk of Zika Virus Transmission by Blood and Blood Components The U.S. Food and Drug Admnistration is issuing this guidance for blood establishments that collect Whole Blood and blood components for immediate implementation in accordance with 21 CFR 10.115(g)(2).

Service Resources

File Description
Avoid Mosquito Bites! This fact sheet from the Army Public Health Center offers tips to avoid mosquito bites to prevent the spread of Zika.
Mosquito Control for Urban Areas This brochure from the Air Force Civil Engineer Center offers tips for controlling the mosquito population in urban areas.
Zika Virus Brochure This brochure from the Army Public Health Center offers information about the Zika virus and how you can protect yourself.
Zika Virus Infection This info sheet from the Navy and Marine Corps Public Health Center provides information about the Zika virus infection.
Zika Virus Infection Trifold This trifold brochure from the Navy and Marine Corps Public Health Center offers information and resources about the spread of Zika virus and prevention.
Zika: How's it Spread This infographic from the Army Public Health Center shows how Zika is spread and offers information about symptoms and prevention.

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